Resistance selection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) towards known drug regimens necessitates the discovery of structurally novel antivirals with a distinct resistance profile. Based on our previously reported 3-hydroxypyrimidine-2,4-dione (HPD) core we have designed and synthesized a new integrase strand transfer (INST) inhibitor type featuring a 5-N-benzylcarboxamide moiety. Significantly, the 6-alkylamino variant of this new chemotype consistently conferred low nanomolar inhibitory activity against HIV-1. Extended antiviral testing against a few raltegravir-resistant HIV-1 clones revealed a resistance profile similar to that of the second generation INST inhibitor (INSTIs) dolutegravir. Although biochemical testing and molecular modeling also strongly corroborate the inhibition of INST as the antiviral mechanism of action, selected antiviral analogues also potently inhibited reverse transcriptase (RT) associated RNase H, implying potential dual target inhibition. In vitro ADME assays demonstrated that this novel chemotype possesses largely favorable physicochemical properties suitable for further development.
3-Hydroxypyrimidine-2,4-dione-5-N-benzylcarboxamides potently inhibit HIV-1 integrase and RNase H.