Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 2016 8 09() doi 10.1038/mt.2016.147
Selective depletion (SD) of alloreactive T cells from allogeneic hematopoeitic stem cell transplants to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) without compromising immune reconstitution and antitumor responses remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a novel SD strategy whereby alloreacting T cells are efficiently deleted ex vivo with adenosine. SD was achieved in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatched cocultures by multiple exposures to 2 mmol/l adenosine over 7 days. Adenosine depleted greater than to 90% of alloproliferating T cells in mismatched, haploidentical, and matched sibling pairs while conserving response to third-party antigens. Alloreactive CD4 and CD8 T cells were targeted for depletion while NK and B cells were preserved. Our novel approach also preserved nonalloreactive naive, central, and effector memory T-cell subsets, Tregs, and notably preserved T-cell responses against DNA viruses that contribute to transplant related mortality after allogeneic hematopoeitic stem cell transplants. Additionally, T cells recognizing leukemia-associated antigens were efficiently generated in vitro from the cell product post-SD. This study is the first to demonstrate that adenosine depletion of alloactivated T cells maintains a complete immune cell profile and recall viral responses. Expansion of tumor antigen-specific subsets postdepletion opens the possibility of generating T-cell products capable of graft-versus-tumor responses without causing GVHD.Molecular Therapy (2016); doi:10.1038/mt.2016.147.