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Adiposity influences airway wall thickness and the asthma phenotype of HIV-associated obstructive lung disease: a cross-sectional study.

Adiposity influences airway wall thickness and the asthma phenotype of HIV-associated obstructive lung disease: a cross-sectional study.
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Barton JH, Ireland A, Fitzpatrick M, Kessinger C, Camp D, Weinman R, McMahon D, Leader JK, Holguin F, Wenzel SE, Morris A, Gingo MR,


Barton JH, Ireland A, Fitzpatrick M, Kessinger C, Camp D, Weinman R, McMahon D, Leader JK, Holguin F, Wenzel SE, Morris A, Gingo MR, (click to view)

Barton JH, Ireland A, Fitzpatrick M, Kessinger C, Camp D, Weinman R, McMahon D, Leader JK, Holguin F, Wenzel SE, Morris A, Gingo MR,

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BMC pulmonary medicine 2016 08 0416(1) 111 doi 10.1186/s12890-016-0274-5

Abstract
BACKGROUND
Airflow obstruction, which encompasses several phenotypes, is common among HIV-infected individuals. Obesity and adipose-related inflammation are associated with both COPD (fixed airflow obstruction) and asthma (reversible airflow obstruction) in HIV-uninfected persons, but the relationship to airway inflammation and airflow obstruction in HIV-infected persons is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine if adiposity and adipose-associated inflammation are associated with airway obstruction phenotypes in HIV-infected persons.

METHODS
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 121 HIV-infected individuals assessed with pulmonary function testing, chest CT scans for measures of airway wall thickness (wall area percent [WA%]) and adipose tissue volumes (mediastinal and subcutaneous), as well as HIV- and adipose-related inflammatory markers. Participants were defined as COPD phenotype (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal) or asthma phenotype (doctor-diagnosed asthma or bronchodilator response). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between adipose measurements, WA%, and pulmonary function. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to determine associations of airflow obstruction and airway remodeling (WA%) with adipose measurements and participant characteristics. RESULTS
Twenty-three (19 %) participants were classified as the COPD phenotype and 33 (27 %) were classified as the asthma phenotype. Body mass index (BMI) was similar between those with and without COPD, but higher in those with asthma compared to those without (mean [SD] 30.7 kg/m(2) [8.1] vs. 26.5 kg/m(2) [5.3], p = 0.008). WA% correlated with greater BMI (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and volume of adipose tissue (subcutaneous, r = 0.40; p < 0.001; mediastinal, r = 0.25; p = 0.005). Multivariable regression found the COPD phenotype associated with greater age and pack-years smoking; the asthma phenotype with younger age, female gender, smoking history, and lower adiponectin levels; and greater WA% with greater BMI, younger age, higher soluble CD163, and higher CD4 counts. CONCLUSIONS
Adiposity and adipose-related inflammation are associated with an asthma phenotype, but not a COPD phenotype, of obstructive lung disease in HIV-infected persons. Airway wall thickness is associated with adiposity and inflammation. Adipose-related inflammation may play a role in HIV-associated asthma.

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