APOL1 renal risk alleles are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults, with the strongest effect being for HIV-associated nephropathy. Their role in youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) has not been studied. In a nested case-control study of 451 PHIV participants in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, we found a 3.5-fold increase odds of CKD in those carrying high-risk APOL1 genotypes using a recessive model (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-10.0). We report an unadjusted incidence of 1.2 CKD cases/100 person-years (95% CI: 0.5, 2.5) in PHIV youth carrying APOL1 high-risk genotypes, with important implications for sub-Saharan Africa.
APOL1 Renal Risk Variants are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Children and Youth with Perinatal HIV infection.