We recruited 21,656 adults as subjects from 2007-2009. The Taiwanese Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation was used to derive the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Subjects with an eGFR lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were defined as having chronic kidney disease (CKD). Land use regression (LUR) models were used to estimate individual exposures to PM with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), coarse particles (PMCoarse), fine particles (PM2.5) and PM2.5Absorbance. Generalized linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between PM exposure and renal function. RESULTS
An IQR increase in PM10 (5.83μg/m(3)) was negatively associated with eGFR by -0.69 (95% CI: -0.89, -0.48) ml/min/1.73 m(2) and positively associated with the prevalence of CKD with adjusted OR = 1.15 (1.07, 1.23). An IQR increase in PMCoarse (6.59μg/m(3)) was significantly associated with lower eGFR by -1.07 (-1.32, -0.81) ml/min/1.73 m(2) and CKD with OR = 1.26 (1.15, 1.38). In contrast, neither outcome was significantly associated with PM2.5 or PM2.5Absorbance. Stratified analyses indicated that associations of CKD with both PM10 and PMCoarse were limited to participants < 65 years of age, and were stronger (for PM10) or limited to (PMCoarse) women. Associations also appeared to be stronger in those without (vs. with) hypertension, and in normal vs. overweight participants. CONCLUSIONS
Exposure during the previous year to PM10 and PMCoarse, but not PM2.5 or PM2.5Absorbance, was associated with reduced renal function among Taiwanese adults.
Associations between Long-Term Particulate Matter Exposure and Adult Renal Function in the Taipei Metropolis.