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August 2016 Briefing – Infectious Disease

August 2016 Briefing – Infectious Disease
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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for August 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Ebola Virus Lingers in Semen Longer Than Expected

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Ebola virus stays present in semen longer than previously thought, and is more likely to be found in older men, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in The Lancet Global Health.

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ACA Is Helping More Americans Afford Prescriptions

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Though a growing number of Americans are able to afford prescription medications, millions still have difficulty, according to a study published online Aug. 23 in the American Journal of Public Health.

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First Case of Zika-Associated Sensory Polyneuropathy Reported

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) — In a case report published online Aug. 21 in the Journal of Neurological Sciences, researchers confirm the first case of Zika-associated sensory polyneuropathy in an adult male.

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Researchers Investigate Three Drugs That Might Fight Zika

TUESDAY, Aug. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Three already existing drugs may offer pregnant women and their developing fetuses protection against the damaging effects of Zika virus, according to a new multicenter study published online Aug. 29 in Nature Medicine.

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AAP Survey Finds More Parents Are Refusing Vaccines

MONDAY, Aug. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) — In a survey conducted in 2013, 87.0 percent of pediatricians said they had encountered vaccine refusals, an increase from the 74.5 percent who reported refusals during the last survey in 2006. The new survey results were published online Aug. 29 in Pediatrics.

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CDC: Zika Transmitted by Sex Partner With No Symptoms

FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) — U.S. health officials report that the Zika virus can be spread sexually even when a partner shows no signs of infection. The research was published in the Aug. 26 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Major Depressive Disorder Ups Acute MI Risk in HIV-Infected

FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) — For HIV-infected adults, major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), according to a study published online Aug. 24 in JAMA Cardiology.

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Intussusception Hospitalization Rate Up at Age 8 to 11 Weeks

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Children aged 8 to 11 weeks have an increased rate of intussusception hospitalization after introduction of rotavirus vaccine, according to a study published online Aug. 24 in Pediatrics.

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Vonoprazan-Based Triple Tx Feasible for H. pylori

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The potassium-competitive acid blocker vonoprazan-based triple therapy seems safe and effective compared with conventional proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy as first-line treatment against Helicobacter pylori, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in the Journal of Digestive Diseases.

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Steep Rise in U.S. Drug Prices Tied to Patent Monopolies

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Prescription drug prices are skyrocketing in the United States due in large part to government regulations, according to a study published in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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CDC Urges Prevention, Early Recognition of Sepsis

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Many cases of life-threatening sepsis could be recognized and treated long before they cause severe illness or death, according to an Aug. 23 Vital Signs report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Genetics May Help Identify Infection in Febrile Infants

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A quick genetic test might one day help doctors determine within hours whether an infant’s fever is from a virus or a serious bacterial infection, according to two studies published in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Imaging Shows Zika-Linked Congenital Brain Abnormalities

TUESDAY, Aug. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Imaging is revealing a wide variety of brain defects, eye defects, hearing issues, and stunted growth in newborns whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus, according to the special report published online Aug. 23 in Radiology.

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Donor Fecal Microbiota Transplant Effective for C. difficile Infection

TUESDAY, Aug. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) — For patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), donor fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is safe and more efficacious than autologous FMT, according to a study published online Aug. 23 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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CDC Updates Guidance on Infants With Congenital Zika

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has released updated interim clinical guidance for health care providers caring for infants born to mothers with possible Zika infection during pregnancy.

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Opt-Out Provisions Up Parent Support for HPV Requirement

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Opt-out provisions increase parental support for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine school-entry requirements, according to a study published online Aug. 19 in Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Slight Decline in U.S. Prevalence of Latent TB From 2000 to 2011

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) — From 2000 to 2011 there was a slight decline in the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the United States, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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ACA Has Increased Rx Drug Use, Cut Out-of-Pocket Spending

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased prescription use and reduced out-of-pocket spending, according to a report published online Aug. 17 in Health Affairs.

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Five Local Zika Cases Now Confirmed in Miami Beach

FRIDAY, Aug. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Florida Gov. Rick Scott confirmed on Friday that local transmission of the Zika virus has occurred in Miami Beach, with a total of five cases reported so far.

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Inadequate Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Group B Strep Is Common

FRIDAY, Aug. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Inadequate intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for group B streptococci (GBS) is common, according to a study published in the September issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Both Concomitant, Sequential Treatment Effective for H. pylori

FRIDAY, Aug. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Both concomitant therapy and sequential therapy achieve high eradication rates as the first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori in areas with high rates of clarithromycin resistance, according to a study published online Aug. 9 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Antimicrobial Tx Duration Often Exceeds Recommendations

FRIDAY, Aug. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Antimicrobials are often prescribed for a longer duration than recommended in guidelines, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Research Offers Insight Into Zika Virus Transmission to Placenta

FRIDAY, Aug. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Primary human placental macrophages, known as Hofbauer cells, and placental villous fibroblasts are susceptible to infection by Zika virus, according to research published online Aug. 18 in JCI Insight.

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Patients Still Risking Eye Damage With Poor Contact Lens Care

FRIDAY, Aug. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Unsafe use of contact lenses is triggering serious eye injuries for many Americans, according to research published in the Aug. 19 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Legal Issues Impact Delivery of Telehealth

THURSDAY, Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Telehealth technologies can allow delivery of high-quality care at a lower cost, especially in underserved areas, but there is currently no uniform legal approach to telehealth, hampering its provision, according to a Health Policy Brief published online Aug. 15 in Health Affairs.

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Residents Often Order Perceived Unnecessary Lab Tests

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Residents frequently order perceived unnecessary inpatient laboratory tests, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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U.S. Female Doctors Reimbursed Significantly Less Than Males

TUESDAY, Aug. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Female doctors in the United States make much less than their male colleagues, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the Postgraduate Medical Journal.

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Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine No Better Than Inactivated

TUESDAY, Aug. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Immunizing children with intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) does not appear to provide better protection against influenza than inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Antimicrobial Resistance to Carbapenems Increasing

TUESDAY, Aug. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Antimicrobial resistance to carbapenems has increased, and consumption of antibiotics, especially carbapenems, is associated with antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, according to a study published online Aug. 11 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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Interferon-Free, Tailored Tx Beneficial in HCV-Associated MC

MONDAY, Aug. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy is beneficial for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) vasculitis, according to a study published online Aug. 2 in Hepatology.

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RSV Found in Aerosol Particles Surrounding Infants With RSV

FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive bronchiolitis produce large numbers of aerosol particles containing RSV that remain infectious for a significant length of time, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Hand Hygiene Program Improves Hygiene Compliance

FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Implementation of a hand hygiene program can improve compliance with hand hygiene and reduce health-care-associated infections (HAIs), according to a study published online Aug. 10 in Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Zika Virus Proteins NS4A, NS4B Associated With Microcephaly

FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The Zika virus contains 10 proteins, but only two — NS4A and NS4B — are linked to microcephaly, according to a study published online Aug. 11 in Cell Stem Cell.

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M. pneumoniae Infection Linked to Guillain-Barré Syndrome

FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), according to a study published online Aug. 4 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Drug Resistance Up for Shigella Clusters Among MSM

THURSDAY, Aug. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Men who have sex with men (MSM) have elevated risk for antimicrobial drug-resistant Shigella infection, according to a report published in the September issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Suicide Rate Increased in Patients With Serious Infections

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Patients hospitalized for serious infections may face an increased risk of suicide, according to research published online Aug. 10 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Florida Reports Four More Cases of Local Zika Infection in Miami

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Four more cases of Zika infection that were likely spread through mosquito bites have been reported in the Miami area, bringing the total count of cases to 21, Florida Gov. Rick Scott said Tuesday.

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Many U.S. Hospitals Offer Language Services

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Overall, 68.8 percent of hospitals offer language services, with the proportion increasing with level of need, according to research published in the August issue of Health Affairs.

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Zika May Be Responsible for Arthrogryposis in Newborns

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The Zika virus may be the cause of joint deformities in the arms and legs of newborns (arthrogryposis), according to a report published online Aug. 9 in The BMJ.

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Elbasvir-Grazoprevir Effective for HCV With Opioid-Agonist Tx

TUESDAY, Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Elbasvir-grazoprevir is effective for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) receiving opioid-agonist therapy (OAT), according to a study published online Aug. 9 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Hospital Study Adds to Evidence of CVR Risk Tied to Periodontitis

MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Periodontitis is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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FDA Approves First Generic Version of Tamiflu

MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The first generic version of the flu medication Tamiflu has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Animal Studies Show Path for Zika Virus Vaccine in Humans

FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Three vaccine platforms have demonstrated protective efficacy against Zika virus (ZIKV) challenge in rhesus monkeys, according to research published online Aug. 4 in Science.

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Nonsterile Gloves Don’t Up Risk of Infection in Minor Skin Sx

FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) — For patients undergoing outpatient cutaneous surgical procedures, use of nonsterile gloves is not associated with increased risk for surgical site infection (SSI), according to a review and meta-analysis published online Aug. 3 in JAMA Dermatology.

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Lymphatic Filariasis Linked to Higher Risk of HIV Infection

THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Lymphatic filariasis, a chronic helminth disease elicited by Wuchereria bancrofti, is associated with increased incidence of HIV infection, according to a study published online Aug. 2 in The Lancet.

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Prolonged Detection of Zika RNA Reported in Pregnant Women

THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA has been documented in five pregnant women, according to research published online July 29 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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M-CSF Plays Role in Host Defense in Bacterial Pneumonia

THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The cytokine M-CSF promotes survival of lung and liver mononuclear phagocytes to mediate host defense during bacterial pneumonia, according to an experimental study published in the June 15 issue of The Journal of Immunology.

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Third Dose of MMR Vaccine Can Help Control Mumps Outbreaks

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A third dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is recommended in cases of mumps outbreak in which transmission is sustained despite high two-dose MMR coverage, according to research published in the July 29 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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USPSTF Recommends Against Screening for Genital Herpes

TUESDAY, Aug. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine serologic screening for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in adolescents and adults who are asymptomatic, including pregnant women. These findings form the basis of a draft recommendation statement published online Aug. 2 by the USPSTF.

Evidence Review
Draft Recommendation Statement
Comment on Recommendation

Locally-Transmitted Zika Infection Count in Miami Up to 14

MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The number of local transmissions of the Zika virus in South Florida has apparently increased to 14, Gov. Rick Scott said Monday.

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August Designated National Immunization Awareness Month

MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) — In order to remind adults of the importance of immunizations throughout life, August is being recognized as National Immunization Awareness Month, according to a report from the American College of Physicians (ACP).

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European Countries Implementing Cost-Sharing

MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) — European health systems are requiring an increase in cost-sharing measures for patients 50 years of age and older, according to research published in the July issue of Health Affairs.

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