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Botswana’s progress toward achieving the 2020 UNAIDS 90-90-90 antiretroviral therapy and virological suppression goals: a population-based survey.

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Gaolathe T, Wirth KE, Holme MP, Makhema J, Moyo S, Chakalisa U, Yankinda EK, Lei Q, Mmalane M, Novitsky V, Okui L, van Widenfelt E, Powis KM, Khan N, Bennett K, Bussmann H, Dryden-Peterson S, Lebelonyane R, El-Halabi S, Mills LA, Marukutira T, Wang R, Tchetgen EJ, DeGruttola V, Essex M, Lockman S, ,


Gaolathe T, Wirth KE, Holme MP, Makhema J, Moyo S, Chakalisa U, Yankinda EK, Lei Q, Mmalane M, Novitsky V, Okui L, van Widenfelt E, Powis KM, Khan N, Bennett K, Bussmann H, Dryden-Peterson S, Lebelonyane R, El-Halabi S, Mills LA, Marukutira T, Wang R, Tchetgen EJ, DeGruttola V, Essex M, Lockman S, , (click to view)

Gaolathe T, Wirth KE, Holme MP, Makhema J, Moyo S, Chakalisa U, Yankinda EK, Lei Q, Mmalane M, Novitsky V, Okui L, van Widenfelt E, Powis KM, Khan N, Bennett K, Bussmann H, Dryden-Peterson S, Lebelonyane R, El-Halabi S, Mills LA, Marukutira T, Wang R, Tchetgen EJ, DeGruttola V, Essex M, Lockman S, ,

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The lancet. HIV 2016 03 243(5) e221-30 doi 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)00037-0

Abstract
BACKGROUND
HIV programmes face challenges achieving high rates of HIV testing and treatment needed to optimise health and to reduce transmission. We used data from the Botswana Combination Prevention Project study survey to assess Botswana’s progress toward achieving UNAIDS targets for 2020: 90% of all people living with HIV knowing their status, 90% of these receiving sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90% of those having virological suppression (90-90-90).

METHODS
A population-based sample of individuals was recruited and interviewed in 30 rural and periurban communities from Oct 30, 2013, to Nov 24, 2015, as part of a large, ongoing community-randomised trial designed to assess the effect of a combination prevention package on HIV incidence. A random sample of about 20% of households in each community was selected. Consenting household residents aged 16-64 years who were Botswana citizens or spouses of citizens responded to a questionnaire and had blood drawn for HIV testing in the absence of documentation of positive HIV status. Viral load testing was done in all HIV-infected participants, irrespective of treatment status. We used modified Poisson generalised estimating equations to obtain prevalence ratios, corresponding Huber robust SEs, and 95% Wald CIs to examine associations between individual sociodemographic factors and a binary outcome indicating achievement of the three individual and combined overall 90-90-90 targets. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01965470.

FINDINGS
81% of enumerated eligible household members took part in the survey (10% refused and 9% were absent). Among 12 610 participants surveyed, 3596 (29%) were infected with HIV, and 2995 (83·3%, 95% CI 81·4-85·2) of these individuals already knew their HIV status. Among those who knew their HIV status, 2617 (87·4%, 95% CI 85·8-89·0) were receiving ART (95% of those eligible by national guidelines, and 73% of all infected people). Of the 2609 individuals receiving ART with a viral load measurement, 2517 (96·5%, 95% CI 96·0-97·0) had viral load of 400 copies per mL or less. Overall, 70·2% (95% CI 67·5-73·0) of HIV-infected people had virological suppression, close to the UNAIDS target of 73%.

INTERPRETATION
UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets are achievable even in resource-constrained settings with high HIV burden.

FUNDING
US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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