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Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Guided by the Single-Chain Fv of a Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Specifically and Effectively Eradicate Virus Reactivated from Latency in CD4+ T Lymphocytes Isolated from HIV-1-Infected Individuals Receiving Suppressive Combined Antiretroviral Therapy.

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Guided by the Single-Chain Fv of a Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Specifically and Effectively Eradicate Virus Reactivated from Latency in CD4+ T Lymphocytes Isolated from HIV-1-Infected Individuals Receiving Suppressive Combined Antiretroviral Therapy.
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Liu B, Zou F, Lu L, Chen C, He D, Zhang X, Tang X, Liu C, Li L, Zhang H,


Liu B, Zou F, Lu L, Chen C, He D, Zhang X, Tang X, Liu C, Li L, Zhang H, (click to view)

Liu B, Zou F, Lu L, Chen C, He D, Zhang X, Tang X, Liu C, Li L, Zhang H,

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Journal of virology 2016 Oct 1490(21) 9712-9724

Abstract

Despite the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the persistence of viral reservoirs remains a major barrier to curing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, the shock and kill strategy, by which such reservoirs are eradicated following reactivation of latent HIV-1 by latency-reversing agents (LRAs), has been extensively practiced. It is important to reestablish virus-specific and reliable immune surveillance to eradicate the reactivated virus-harboring cells. In this report, we attempted to reach this goal by using newly developed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell technology. To generate anti-HIV-1 CAR-T cells, we connected the single-chain variable fragment of the broadly neutralizing HIV-1-specific antibody VRC01 to a third-generation CAR moiety as the extracellular and intracellular domains and subsequently transduced this into primary CD8(+) T lymphocytes. We demonstrated that the resulting VC-CAR-T cells induced T cell-mediated cytolysis of cells expressing HIV-1 Env proteins and significantly inhibited HIV-1 rebound after removal of antiviral inhibitors in a viral infectivity model in cell culture that mimics the termination of the cART in the clinic. Importantly, the VC-CAR-T cells also effectively induced the cytolysis of LRA-reactivated HIV-1-infected CD4(+) T lymphocytes isolated from infected individuals receiving suppressive cART. Our data demonstrate that the special features of genetically engineered CAR-T cells make them a particularly suitable candidate for therapeutic application in efforts to reach a functional HIV cure.

IMPORTANCE
The presence of latently infected cells remains a key obstacle to the development of a functional HIV-1 cure. Reactivation of dormant viruses is possible with latency-reversing agents, but the effectiveness of these compounds and the subsequent immune response require optimization if the eradication of HIV-1-infected cells is to be achieved. Here, we describe the use of a chimeric antigen receptor, comprised of T cell activation domains and a broadly neutralizing antibody, VRC01, targeting HIV-1 to treat the infected cells. T cells expressing this construct exerted specific cytotoxic activity against wild-type HIV-1-infected cells, resulting in a dramatic reduction in viral rebound in vitro, and showed persistent effectiveness against reactivated latently infected T lymphocytes from HIV-1 patients receiving combined antiretroviral therapy. The methods used in this study constitute an improvement over existing CD4-based CAR-T technology and offer a promising approach to HIV-1 immunotherapy.

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