PloS one 2016 08 0911(8) e0160109 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0160109
To evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, stratified by level of drug resistance.
This was a historical cohort study based on data from the II National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey (2006-2007) collected at eight participating health care facilities in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. The cohort was followed for 3 years after the start of treatment.
Of 299 cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis included in the study, 216 (72.2%) were diagnosed at five public primary health care units and 83 (27.8%) at three public hospitals. Among these cases, the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis was 14.4%, and that of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was 4.7%. Overall, 32.0% of drug-resistant and 2.0% of multidrug-resistant cases occurred in previously treated patients. The most common comorbidity in the sample was HIV infection (26.2%). There was no association between drug-resistant or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and sociodemographic variables. Cure was achieved in 66.7% of patients, and the default rate was 21.2%. The 2-month sputum conversion rate was 34.2%, and the relapse rate was 16.9%. Patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis had lower rates of cure (45.2%) and 2-month sputum conversion (25%), as well as a higher relapse rate (30.7%).
These results highlight the urgent need for a more effective TB control program in this geographical setting, with a major emphasis on treatment of drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.