Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi 37(2) 138-143 doi 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-2727.2016.02.011
Objective: To analyze the prevalence of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)infection in patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Methods: The occurrence of EBV viremia, EBV disease and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD)were retrospectively analyzed in 736 patients received allo-HSCT in single-center from 1st January 2012 through July 31th, 2014. Results: Of 736 patients (302 male and 434 females)with a median age of 31 (2 to 62) years old, EBV infection occurred in 181 patients, the total incidence of EBV infection was 27.6%, with a median time of 57 (16 to 829)days. The cumulative incidences of probable EBV disease and PTLD were 7.2% (13/181)and 2.8% (5/181). Viral load higher than 1.0×10(4)copies/ml occurs in 130 patients, of which 67 patients received rituximab as pre-empty prophylaxis and significantly reduced the incidences of probable EBV disease and PTLD (6.0% vs 22.2%,P=0.009). The mortality was 27.6% in all patients with EBV infection: 24.5% in EBV viremia, 53.8% in probable EBV disease, and 60.6% in PTLD. By univariate and multivariate analysis, the use of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), HLA-mismatch HSCT, cGVHD and CMV reactivation were independent risk factors for EBV infection. The time of first EBV reactivation was closely related with cGVHD(OR=0.620, 95%CI 0.453-0.849,P=0.003)and bone marrow or cord blood (OR=1.156, 95%CI 1.022-2.250,P=0.039) as source of stem cells for transplantation. Conclusion: EBV reactivation is a common complication in patients with allo-HSCT, especially high mortality in PTLD and probable EBV disease. The use of ATG, HLA-mismatch HSCT, cGVHD and CMV reactivation were independent risk factors for EBV infection. The usage of rituximab as pre-empty prophylaxis may reduce the incidences of probable EBV disease and PTLD.