Target Audience (click to view)
This activity is designed to meet the needs of physicians and nurses.
Learning Objectives(click to view)
Upon completion of the educational activity, participants should be able to:
- Review key findings from six studies presented at the 2017 annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.
Method of Participation(click to view)
Release Date: 5/18/2017
Expiration Date: 5/18/2018
Statements of credit will be awarded based on the participant reviewing monograph, correctly answer 2 out of 3 questions on the post test, completing and submitting an activity evaluation. A statement of credit will be available upon completion of an online evaluation/claimed credit form at akhcme.com/akhcme/lessons/16. You must participate in the entire activity to receive credit. If you have questions about this CME/CE activity, please contact AKH Inc. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Credit Available(click to view)
CME Credit Provided by AKH Inc., Advancing Knowledge in Healthcare
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of AKH Inc., Advancing Knowledge in Healthcare and Physician’s Weekly’s. AKH Inc., Advancing Knowledge in Healthcare is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
AKH Inc., Advancing Knowledge in Healthcare designates this enduring activity for a maximum of 0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
NCCPA accepts AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ from organizations accredited by ACCME.
AKH Inc., Advancing Knowledge in Healthcare is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation.
This activity is awarded 0.5 contact hours.
Commercial Support(click to view)
There is no commercial support for this activity.
Disclosures(click to view)
It is the policy of AKH Inc. to ensure independence, balance, objectivity, scientific rigor, and integrity in all of its continuing education activities. The author must disclose to the participants any significant relationships with commercial interests whose products or devices may be mentioned in the activity or with the commercial supporter of this continuing education activity. Identified conflicts of interest are resolved by AKH prior to accreditation of the activity and may include any of or combination of the following: attestation to non-commercial content; notification of independent and certified CME/CE expectations; referral to National Author Initiative training; restriction of topic area or content; restriction to discussion of science only; amendment of content to eliminate discussion of device or technique; use of other author for discussion of recommendations; independent review against criteria ensuring evidence support recommendation; moderator review; and peer review.
Disclosure of Unlabeled Use & Investigational Product(click to view)
This educational activity may include discussion of uses of agents that are investigational and/or unapproved by the FDA. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.
Disclaimer(click to view)
This course is designed solely to provide the healthcare professional with information to assist in his/her practice and professional development and is not to be considered a diagnostic tool to replace professional advice or treatment. The course serves as a general guide to the healthcare professional, and therefore, cannot be considered as giving legal, nursing, medical, or other professional advice in specific cases. AKH Inc. specifically disclaim responsibility for any adverse consequences resulting directly or indirectly from information in the course, for undetected error, or through participant’s misunderstanding of the content.
Faculty & Credentials(click to view)
Complete the Post Test(click to view)
Smoking Cessation & Caner Risk in HIV Patients
Previous studies suggest that the impact of smoking is much greater in patients with HIV than in the general population. However, research on the long-term outcomes of HIV patients who quit smoking is lacking. For a study, investigators reviewed outcomes among nearly 40,000 HIV-infected active smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers. Among ex-smokers, the risk for most cancers at 1 year after quitting was about the same as what was observed among non-smokers. However, lung cancer risk was 11 times higher at 1 year after quitting and eight times higher after 5 years. The authors note that the findings are contrary to those of similar studies, which have shown a consistent decline in lung cancer incidence with increasing time since smoking cessation among HIV-negative people.
HCV Treatment as Prevention?
In prior research, researchers found that initiating a policy for unrestricted reimbursement for new, direct-acting agents against chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) resulted in 76% of HIV-positive people in the Netherlands being cured in 14 months. However, little is known about the impact of such a policy on new cases of HCV among men who have sex with men. In a new analysis, investigators compared the incidence of acute HCV in the year before initiating this type of policy with HCV rates at 1 year after the policy was set forth. During the year before initiation, the acute HCV incidence rate was 11.2 per 1,000 person-years follow-up. During the year after initiation, the incidence rate dropped to 5.5 per 1,000 person-years follow-up. The study authors noted that although their findings may be the result of changes in behavior, HCV was the only sexually transmitted disease that declined during the study period.
Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Reduces STIs
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)—particularly syphilis and drug-resistant gonorrhea— have been rising among men who have sex with men (MSM) for more than 6 years, increasing susceptibility to HIV among this patient population. For a study, MSM were randomized to receive STI prophylaxis or no such prophylaxis. Men in the prophylaxis group were instructed to take two 100-mg doxycycline pills during the 72 hours after condom-less sexual intercourse. At a median of 8.7 months follow up, men in the prophylaxis group had a 47% lower rate of STIs. Risk reductions for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis were 17%, 70%, and 73%, respectively. Overall, 71% of men in the study were asymptomatic.
Disease Progression in Untreated HIV-2
Anecdotal evidence suggests that most patients infected with HIV-2 do not experience severe pathogenic consequences throughout the disease course. However, conclusive survival data are lacking from cohorts with long-term follow-up. For a study, researchers followed 312 people infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2 after enrollment in a cohort with 23 years of follow-up. The median times to AIDS and mortality were 14.3 years and 15.6 years, respectively, for HIV-2 infected patients, whereas these times were 6.2 years and 8.2 years, respectively, for HIV-1 infected individuals.
Patients Lack Confidence in PrEP
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can help reduce risks for new HIV infections. However, a better understanding of PrEP users’ perspectives is needed to help clinicians optimize uptake of this treatment and anticipate barriers to implementing it. To address this research gap, investigators analyzed serodiscordant couples’ understandings of and feelings about PrEP. Couples generally understood that antiretroviral therapy (ART) helps prevent HIV transmission to uninfected partners, but some doubted that ART alone could protect them from acquiring the virus. Others lacked confidence in PrEP and expressed concerns about the effectiveness of ART for prevention in the absence of other methods of protection. There were also misunderstandings about how viral suppression and sustained ART use reduces infectiousness and HIV risk. Many patients preferred using multiple methods of protection simultaneously.
HIV Screening & Costs in Heterosexuals
The cost-effectiveness of HIV screening for men who have sex with men and injection drug users has been well documented, but few studies have explored the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening and frequency among heterosexuals, particularly those who have historically been considered at high risk of HIV. For a study, researchers examined HIV screening at various frequencies for the mutually exclusive general heterosexual and high-risk heterosexual populations. With the general heterosexual population screened every 20 years, screening high-risk heterosexuals as frequently as annually was cost-effective compared with screening every 3 years. Screening high-risk heterosexuals annually compared with every 20 years reduced projected cumulative HIV incidence for the total population by 5%.
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