Photobleaching is a major obstacle in the real-time imaging of biological events, particularly at the single-molecule/particle level. Here, we report a strategy to delay photobleaching of a light-switch complex, [Ru(phen)2dppx]2+, by insertion of a six-cysteine peptide into virus particles. The six-cysteine peptide was inserted into viral protein R of HIV-1, and assembled into infectious HIV-1 viral particles, where it effectively delayed the photobleaching of the [Ru(phen)2dppx]2+ complex used to label viral genomic RNAs. This delay in photobleaching allowed for a mono-fluorescent assay to be constructed for the real-time monitoring of viral uncoating, a poorly understood process. This novel strategy to delay photobleaching in infectious viral particles provides a powerful method to analyze viral uncoating at the single-particle level in real time.
Delaying Photobleaching of a Light-Switch Complex for Real-Time Imaging of Single Viral Particle Uncoating.