Clinical cardiology 2016 Oct 7() doi 10.1002/clc.22591
A growing number of patients with an indication for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation have kidney-, age-, or weight-related alterations in pharmacokinetics that affect dosing of direct oral anticoagulants. Because these patients were excluded from or comprised a small number of patients in clinical trials, there is a lack of evidence to guide clinicians. As a consequence, many patients do not receive oral anticoagulation despite a high risk for atrial fibrillation-related stroke. Here, we present a review of direct oral anticoagulant pharmacokinetics and a review of the available clinical evidence in patients with weight-, kidney-, and age-related disease.