Journal of dairy science 2016 9 13() pii 10.3168/jds.2016-11204
This study aimed to determine the effects of high-pressure processing on the immunoglobulin concentration, microbial load, viscosity, and transfer of passive immunity to calves when applied to bovine colostrum as an alternative to thermal pasteurization. A pilot study using Staphylococcus aureus was conducted to determine which pressure-time treatments are most appropriate for use with bovine colostrum, with the goals of maximizing bacterial inactivation while minimizing IgG content and viscosity changes. Following the pilot study, an inoculation study was conducted in which first-milking colostrum samples from Holstein-Friesian cows were inoculated with known concentrations of various bacteria or viruses and pressure processed at either 300 MPa for up to 60 min or at 400 MPa for up to 30 min. The recovery of total native aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Dublin, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, bovine herpesvirus type 1, and feline calicivirus were determined after processing. Colostrum IgG content was measured before and after pressure processing. Shear stress and viscosity for each treatment was determined over shear rates encompassing those found during calf feeding and at normal bovine body temperature (37.8°C). Following a calf trial, serum IgG concentration was measured in 14 calves fed 4 L of colostrum pressure processed at 400 MPa for 15 min. In the pilot study, S. aureus was effectively reduced with pressure treatment at 300 and 400 MPa (0, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min), with 2 treatments at 400 MPa (30, 45 min) determined to be inappropriate for use with bovine colostrum due to viscosity and IgG changes. High-pressure processing at 300 MPa (30, 45, and 60 min) and 400 MPa (10, 15, and 20 min) was shown to effectively reduce total native aerobic bacteria, E. coli, Salmonella Dublin, bovine herpesvirus type 1, and feline calicivirus populations in bovine colostrum, but no decrease occurred in Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. All inoculation study pressure treatments insignificantly decreased IgG content of colostrum. Treatment of colostrum at 400 MPa for 15 min during the calf trial decreased IgG content of colostrum. Treatment at 400 MPa for 15 min increased colostrum viscosity, with 2 of 14 samples requiring dilution with water for calf feeding. Calves fed pressure-processed colostrum had similar serum IgG but lower efficiency of absorption than calves fed heat-treated colostrum. The results of this study suggest that high-pressure processing of bovine colostrum maintains an acceptable IgG level while decreasing bacterial and viral counts. Changes in viscosity sometimes made calf feeding more difficult, but still feasible. Additional research to optimize this technology for on-farm use is necessary.