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Factors associated with smoking among tuberculosis patients in Spain.

Factors associated with smoking among tuberculosis patients in Spain.
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Jiménez-Fuentes MÁ, Rodrigo T, Altet MN, Jiménez-Ruiz CA, Casals M, Penas A, Mir I, Solano Reina S, Riesco-Miranda JA, Caylá JA, ,


Jiménez-Fuentes MÁ, Rodrigo T, Altet MN, Jiménez-Ruiz CA, Casals M, Penas A, Mir I, Solano Reina S, Riesco-Miranda JA, Caylá JA, , (click to view)

Jiménez-Fuentes MÁ, Rodrigo T, Altet MN, Jiménez-Ruiz CA, Casals M, Penas A, Mir I, Solano Reina S, Riesco-Miranda JA, Caylá JA, ,

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BMC infectious diseases 2016 09 1416() 486 doi 10.1186/s12879-016-1819-1

Abstract
BACKGROUND
To determine the prevalence of smoking and analyze associated factors in a cohort of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in Spain between 2006 and 2013.

METHODS
Multicenter, cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study using a national database of TB patients, using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS
We analyzed 5,846 cases (62 % men, mean age 39 years, 33 % foreigners). 23.4 % were alcohol abuser, 1.3 % were injected drug users (IDU), 4.6 % were co-infected with HIV, and 7.5 % had a history of TB treatment. 6.6 % and 0.8 % showed resistance to one and multiple drugs, respectively. The predominant clinical presentation was pulmonary (71 %) with a cavitary radiological pattern in 32.8 % of cases. 82 % of cases were confirmed microbiologically, and 54 % were smear-positive microscopy. 2,300 (39.3 %) patients were smokers. The following factors were associated with smoking: male sex (OR = 2.26;CI:1.97;2.60), Spanish origin (OR = 2.79;CI:2.40-3.24), alcoholism (OR = 2.85;CI:2.46;3.31), IDU (OR = 2.78;CI:1.48;5.52), homelessness (OR = 1.99;CI:1.14-3.57), pulmonary TB (OR = 1.61;CI:1.16;2.24), cavitary radiological pattern (OR = 1.99;CI:1.43;2.79) and a smear-positive microscopy at the time of diagnosis (OR = 1.39;CI:1.14;1.17).

CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of smoking among TB patients is high. Smokers with TB have a distinct sociodemographic, clinical, radiological and microbiological profile to non-smokers.

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