Antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may reduce the efficacy of prophylactic therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and future treatment options. This study evaluated the diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions of HIV-1 pol gene among 87 ARV-naive HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2012 and 2015. The viral diversity comprised HIV-1 subtypes B (67.8%), F1 (17.2%), and C (4.6%); the circulating recombinant forms 12_BF (2.3%), 28/29_BF, 39_BF, 02_AG (1.1% each) and unique recombinants forms (4.5%). The overall prevalence of any TDR was 17.2%, of which 5.7% for nucleoside RT inhibitors, 5.7% for non-nucleoside RT inhibitors, and 8% for PR inhibitors. The TDR prevalence found in this population may affect the virological outcome of the standard PMTCT ARV-regimens, reinforcing the importance of continuous monitoring.
High HIV-1 Diversity and Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Pregnant Women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.