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HIV stigma trends in the general population during antiretroviral treatment expansion: analysis of 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, 2003-2013.

HIV stigma trends in the general population during antiretroviral treatment expansion: analysis of 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, 2003-2013.
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Chan BT, Tsai AC,


Chan BT, Tsai AC, (click to view)

Chan BT, Tsai AC,

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Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 72(5) 558-64 doi 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001011

Abstract
BACKGROUND
HIV-related stigma is associated with increased risk-taking behavior, reduced uptake of HIV testing, and decreased adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although ART scale-up may reduce HIV-related stigma, the extent to which levels of stigma in the general population have changed during the era of ART scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown.

METHODS
Social distance and anticipated stigma were operationalized using standard HIV-related stigma questions contained in the Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys of 31 African countries between 2003 and 2013. We fitted multivariable linear regression models with cluster-correlated robust standard errors and country fixed effects, specifying social distance or anticipated stigma as the dependent variable and year as the primary explanatory variable of interest.

RESULTS
We estimated a statistically significant negative association between year and desires for social distance (b = -0.020; P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval: -0.026 to -0.015) but a statistically significant positive association between year and anticipated stigma (b = 0.023; P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval: 0.018 to 0.027). In analyses stratified by HIV prevalence above or below the sample median, declines in social distancing over time were more pronounced among countries with a higher HIV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS
Concomitant with ART scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa, anticipated stigma in the general population increased despite a decrease in social distancing toward people living with HIV. Although ART scale-up may help reduce social distancing toward people living with HIV, particularly in high-prevalence countries, other interventions targeting symbolic or instrumental concerns about HIV may be needed.

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