Toxicology 2016 8 23() pii 10.1016/j.tox.2016.08.010
Sulfonamide hypersensitivity has a high incidence in HIV infection and correlates with low CD4+ counts, but the mechanisms are not understood. The aims of this study were to determine whether trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) led to SMX adduct formation, immunogenicity, or signs of drug hypersensitivity in SIV-infected rhesus macaques, and whether differences in antioxidants, pro-inflammatory mediators, or SMX disposition were predictive of drug immunogenicity.
Nine macaques chronically infected with SIVmac239 and 7 non-infected controls were studied. Baseline blood ascorbate, glutathione, IFN-γ, LPS, sCD14, and cytochrome b5 reductase measurements were obtained, macaques were dosed with TMP/SMX (120mg/kg/day p.o. for 14 days), and SMX metabolites, lymph node drug adducts, drug-responsive T cells, and anti-SMX antibodies were measured.
Four of 9 of SIV-positive (44%), and 3 of 7 SIV negative (43%) macaques had drug-responsive T cells or antibodies to SMX. Two macaques developed facial or truncal rash; these animals had the highest levels of lymph node drug adducts. Antioxidants, pro-inflammatory mediators, and SMX metabolites were not predictive of drug immunogenicity; however, the Mamu DRB1*0401/0406/0411 genotype was significantly over-represented in immune responders.
Unlike other animal models, macaques develop an immune response, and possible rash, in response to therapeutic dosages of TMP/SMX. Studying more animals with CD4+ counts<200 cells/μl, along with moderately restricted ascorbate intake to match deficiencies seen in humans, may better model the risk of SMX hypersensitivity in HIV-infection. In addition, the role of Mamu-DRB1 genotype in modeling drug hypersensitivity in retroviral infection deserves further study.