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Increases in Entamoeba histolytica Antibody-Positive Rates in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Noninfected Patients in Japan: A 10-Year Hospital-Based Study of 3,514 Patients.

Increases in Entamoeba histolytica Antibody-Positive Rates in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Noninfected Patients in Japan: A 10-Year Hospital-Based Study of 3,514 Patients.
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Yanagawa Y, Nagata N, Watanabe K, Tsukada K, Teruya K, Kikuchi Y, Gatanaga H, Akiyama J, Uemura N, Oka S,


Yanagawa Y, Nagata N, Watanabe K, Tsukada K, Teruya K, Kikuchi Y, Gatanaga H, Akiyama J, Uemura N, Oka S, (click to view)

Yanagawa Y, Nagata N, Watanabe K, Tsukada K, Teruya K, Kikuchi Y, Gatanaga H, Akiyama J, Uemura N, Oka S,

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The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 2016 06 1395(3) 604-9 doi 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0134

Abstract

Serological evidence of the epidemiological trends in Entamoeba histolytica infection is scarce, especially in nonendemic countries. We aimed to determine the antibody-positive rates over a 10-year period, and compare the trends between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -noninfected patients. We reviewed 3,514 patients who underwent antibody testing during the study periods, which were divided into five annual categories: 2004-2005, 2006-2007, 2008-2009, 2010-2011, and 2012-2013. Anti-E. histolytica antibody was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The antibody-positive rate increased yearly from 2004-2005 to 2012-2013 (P < 0.001), although there was no increase in the annual number of antibody tests. This trend was seen among males (18.6-28.3%; P < 0.01), females (5.4-28.2%; P < 0.01), HIV-infected patients (18.4-26.9%; P < 0.001), and non-HIV-infected patients (14.6-36.8%; P < 0.001), and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (19.4-29.1%; P < 0.001). Among antibody-positive patients, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients with high (≥ 1,600) titers (0.7-12.9%; P < 0.001), whereas this trend was not seen in patients with low (100) or intermediate (200-800) titers (P = 0.282 and 0.409, respectively). This large hospital-based study demonstrated that positive anti-E. histolytica antibody rates increased over 10 years, even though the annual number of antibody tests remained constant. Moreover, this trend was identified in non-high-risk patients (females and non-HIV-infected patients) as well as in high-risk patients. The proportion of patients with high antibody titers significantly increased among the antibody-positive patients.

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