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Insights into HIV-1 proviral transcription from the structure and dynamics of the Tat:AFF4:P-TEFb:TAR complex.

Insights into HIV-1 proviral transcription from the structure and dynamics of the Tat:AFF4:P-TEFb:TAR complex.
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Schulze-Gahmen U, Echeverria I, Stjepanovic G, Bai Y, Lu H, Schneidman-Duhovny D, Doudna JA, Zhou Q, Sali A, Hurley JH,


Schulze-Gahmen U, Echeverria I, Stjepanovic G, Bai Y, Lu H, Schneidman-Duhovny D, Doudna JA, Zhou Q, Sali A, Hurley JH, (click to view)

Schulze-Gahmen U, Echeverria I, Stjepanovic G, Bai Y, Lu H, Schneidman-Duhovny D, Doudna JA, Zhou Q, Sali A, Hurley JH,

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eLife 2016 Oct 125() doi 10.7554/eLife.15910

Abstract

HIV-1 Tat hijacks the human superelongation complex (SEC) to promote proviral transcription. Here we report the 5.9 Å structure of HIV-1 TAR in complex with HIV-1 Tat and human AFF4, CDK9, and CycT1. The TAR central loop contacts the CycT1 Tat-TAR recognition motif (TRM) and the second Tat Zn(2+)-binding loop. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) shows that AFF4 helix 2 is stabilized in the TAR complex despite not touching the RNA, explaining how it enhances TAR binding to the SEC 50-fold. RNA SHAPE and SAXS data were used to help model the extended (Tat Arginine-Rich Motif) ARM, which enters the TAR major groove between the bulge and the central loop. The structure and functional assays collectively support a bipartite model, wherein the TAR central loop engages the CycT1 TRM and compact core of Tat, while the TAR major groove interacts with the extended Tat ARM.

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