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Interactive Effects of Ethanol and HIV-1 Proteins on Novelty-Seeking Behaviors and Addiction-Related Gene Expression.

Interactive Effects of Ethanol and HIV-1 Proteins on Novelty-Seeking Behaviors and Addiction-Related Gene Expression.
Author Information (click to view)

Wingo T, Nesil T, Chang SL, Li MD,


Wingo T, Nesil T, Chang SL, Li MD, (click to view)

Wingo T, Nesil T, Chang SL, Li MD,

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Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 2016 9 21() doi 10.1111/acer.13206

Abstract
BACKGROUND
Novelty-seeking behavior is related to the reward system in the brain and can predict the potential for addiction. Alcohol use is prevalent in HIV-1-infected patients and adversely affects antiretroviral medication. The difference in vulnerability to alcohol addiction between HIV-1-infected and noninfected populations has not been fully investigated. This study was designed to determine whether HIV-1 proteins alter the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on novelty-seeking behavior using the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat as the study model and to examine the molecular mechanisms responsible for this behavior.

METHODS
Both HIV-1Tg and F344 control rats were tested for baseline novelty-seeking behavior, then received either EtOH (1 g/kg) at a concentration of 20% v/v or saline treatment for 13 days, and then were retested for novelty seeking. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was conducted to examine the differences in expression of 65 genes implicated in novelty seeking and alcohol addiction between strains and treatment groups.

RESULTS
The HIV-1 proteins significantly enhanced baseline novelty-seeking behaviors in both the hole-board and open-field tests. Chronic EtOH treatment significantly increased baseline novelty-seeking behavior in both strains, but the effects of EtOH appeared to be more robust and prominent in HIV-1Tg rats. Strain-specific patterns of altered gene expression were observed for dopaminergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic signaling in the nucleus accumbens, suggesting the effects of HIV-1 proteins on the brain’s reward system. Chronic EtOH treatment was shown to greatly modulate the effects of HIV-1 proteins in these neurotransmitter systems.

CONCLUSIONS
Taken together, our findings indicate that HIV-1 proteins could modify novelty-seeking behavior at the gene expression level, and EtOH treatment may enhance this behavior in both strains but to a greater extent in HIV-1Tg rats.

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