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Intimate partner violence experienced by HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

Intimate partner violence experienced by HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.
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Bernstein M, Phillips T, Zerbe A, McIntyre JA, Brittain K, Petro G, Abrams EJ, Myer L,


Bernstein M, Phillips T, Zerbe A, McIntyre JA, Brittain K, Petro G, Abrams EJ, Myer L, (click to view)

Bernstein M, Phillips T, Zerbe A, McIntyre JA, Brittain K, Petro G, Abrams EJ, Myer L,

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BMJ open 2016 08 166(8) e011999 doi 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011999

Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy may be common in settings where HIV is prevalent but there are few data on IPV in populations of HIV-infected pregnant women in Southern Africa. We examined the prevalence and correlates of IPV among HIV-infected pregnant women.

SETTING
A primary care antenatal clinic in Cape Town, South Africa.

PARTICIPANTS
623 consecutive HIV-infected pregnant women initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy.

MEASURES
IPV, depression, substance use and psychological distress were assessed using the 13-item WHO Violence Against Women questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Identification Tests (AUDIT/DUDIT) and the Kessler 10 (K-10) scale, respectively.

RESULTS
The median age in the sample was 28 years, 97% of women reported being in a relationship, and 70% of women reported not discussing and/or agreeing on pregnancy intentions before conception. 21% of women (n=132) reported experiencing ≥1 act of IPV in the past 12 months, including emotional (15%), physical (15%) and sexual violence (2%). Of those reporting any IPV (n=132), 48% reported experiencing 2 or more types. Emotional and physical violence was most prevalent among women aged 18-24 years, while sexual violence was most commonly reported among women aged 25-29 years. Reported IPV was less likely among married women, and women who experienced IPV were more likely to score above threshold for substance use, depression and psychological distress. In addition, women who reported not discussing and/or not agreeing on pregnancy intentions with their partner prior to conception were significantly more likely to experience violence.

CONCLUSIONS
HIV-infected pregnant women in the study reported experiencing multiple forms of IPV. While the impact of IPV on maternal and child health outcomes in the context of HIV infection requires further research attention, IPV screening and support services should be considered within the package of routine care for HIV-infected pregnant women.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER
NCT01933477.

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