to assess the incidence, risk factors and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among the Israeli HIV population. A matched case-control study nested in a nationwide, prospective, population-based, cohort of adult IPD was performed. In addition, the HIV-IPD patients were compared to the general adult HIV population in Israel.
from the introduction of PCV into the national immunization program (NIP) in July 2009 to June 2014. Each HIV patient within the IPD cohort was matched to four non-HIV controls. Serotyping was performed by a central laboratory using the Quellung reaction. Thirty-five IPD episodes in 33 HIV patients were identified, with a median annual incidence of 128/100,000 HIV+ persons compared to 5.1/100,000 in the age-matched, non-HIV population. Compared to the general HIV population, HIV-IPD patients practiced intravenous drug use more frequently and originated from a country with generalized epidemic (OGE), mainly non-citizens lacking medical insurance. The proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) was lower than in the general HIV population. Pneumonia was the most common clinical presentation (81%), while meningitis occurred in only one patient. Outcomes were similar to those of the IPD non-HIV population. Nineteen serotypes were identified, of which only 42% were covered by PCV13 vaccine. By 2014, none of the HIV-IPD cases belonged to serotypes covered by PCV13. In conclusion, most HIV IPD cases were from marginalized populations with poor access to health services. A decrease in IPD cases covered by PCV 13 was observed.