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Ipilimumab with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy: Phase I results and immunologic correlates from peripheral T-cells.

Ipilimumab with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy: Phase I results and immunologic correlates from peripheral T-cells.
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Tang C, Welsh JW, de Groot P, Massarelli E, Chang JY, Hess KR, Basu S, Curran MA, Cabanillas ME, Subbiah V, Fu S, Tsimberidou AM, Karp D, Gomez DR, Diab A, Komaki R, Sharma P, Naing A, Hong DS,


Tang C, Welsh JW, de Groot P, Massarelli E, Chang JY, Hess KR, Basu S, Curran MA, Cabanillas ME, Subbiah V, Fu S, Tsimberidou AM, Karp D, Gomez DR, Diab A, Komaki R, Sharma P, Naing A, Hong DS, (click to view)

Tang C, Welsh JW, de Groot P, Massarelli E, Chang JY, Hess KR, Basu S, Curran MA, Cabanillas ME, Subbiah V, Fu S, Tsimberidou AM, Karp D, Gomez DR, Diab A, Komaki R, Sharma P, Naing A, Hong DS,

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Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2016 9 20() pii

Abstract
PURPOSE
Little prospective data is available on clinical outcomes and immune correlates from combination radiation and immunotherapy. We conducted a phase I trial (NCT02239900) testing stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) with ipilimumab.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
SABR was given either concurrently (1 day after the first dose) or sequentially (1 week after the second dose) with ipilimumab (3 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses) to 5 treatment groups: concurrent 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to liver; sequential 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to liver; concurrent 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to lung; sequential 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to lung; and sequential 60 Gy (in 10 fractions) to lung or liver. Maximum tolerated dose was determined with a 3+3 dose de-escalation design. Immune marker expression was assessed by flow cytometry.

RESULTS
Among 35 patients who initiated ipilimumab, 2 experienced dose-limiting toxicity and 12 (34%) grade 3 toxicity. Response outside the radiation field was assessable in 31 patients. Three patients (10%) exhibited partial response and 7 (23%) experienced clinical benefit (defined as partial response or stable disease lasting {greater than or equal to}6 months). Clinical benefit was associated with increases in peripheral CD8+ T-cells; CD8+/CD4+ T-cell ratio; and proportion of CD8+ T-cells expressing 4-1BB and PD1. Liver (vs. lung) irradiation produced greater T-cell activation, reflected as increases in the proportions of peripheral T-cells expressing ICOS, GITR, and 4-1BB.

CONCLUSIONS
Combining SABR and ipilimumab was safe with signs of efficacy; peripheral T-cell markers may predict clinical benefit; and systemic immune activation was greater after liver irradiation.

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