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July 2016 Briefing – Infectious Disease

July 2016 Briefing – Infectious Disease
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Here are highlights of the most important developments in Infectious Disease for July 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Conception During Low Mosquito Activity May Lower Zika Odds

FRIDAY, July 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Women in Zika-affected countries might reduce their risk of infection during pregnancy by timing conception with periods of low mosquito activity, according to a perspective piece published July 28 in PLOS Biology.

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Clinicians Should Consider Valley Fever in Some Flu Patients

THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Clinicians should suspect coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, in patients with pneumonia or ongoing flu-like symptoms who live in or have visited the west or southwest United States, especially Arizona and central California, according to updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) published online July 27 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Two More Possible Cases of Non-Travel-Related Zika in Florida

THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Florida health officials are investigating two more unexplained cases of Zika infection, bringing to four the number of cases that don’t seem to be related to travel to countries where the virus is circulating.

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Miscarriage Linked to Maternal Zika Infection

THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Dutch researchers are reporting a case of miscarriage tied to maternal infection with the Zika virus. The report was published online July 27 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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FDA Strengthens Safety Warnings for Fluoroquinolones

WEDNESDAY, July 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced Tuesday that it’s strengthening label warnings on fluoroquinolones because the drugs can lead to disabling side effects, including long-term nerve damage and ruptured tendons.

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Flu Vaccine Protective Against Hospitalization, Death in T2DM

WEDNESDAY, July 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The seasonal influenza vaccine may significantly reduce mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes, as well as hospitalizations for stroke and cardiovascular and pulmonary issues, according to a study published online July 25 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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American Red Cross Says Blood Donations Needed Urgently

TUESDAY, July 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The American Red Cross says it has an urgent need for blood donations, with less than a five-day supply of blood on hand to help those who need it.

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Medical Students Often Track Progress of Former Patients

TUESDAY, July 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Many U.S. medical students use electronic health records to track the progress of their former patients and confirm the accuracy of their diagnoses, according to research letter published online July 25 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Delaying Pregnancy Could Reduce Risk of Zika Infection

TUESDAY, July 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) — For the population of Colombia, pregnancy delays of sufficient duration can reduce the risk of prenatal Zika virus infections, according to research published online July 26 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Recent Increases in Rate of Hep C Detection in Young Women

TUESDAY, July 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) — From 2011 to 2014 there were increases in the rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) detection among women of childbearing age, according to research published in the July 25 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Risk of Contracting Zika at Rio Olympics Small

TUESDAY, July 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Travelers and competitors at the 2016 Olympic Games in Brazil are not likely to contract the Zika virus during their stay or bring it back to their home countries, according to an Ideas and Opinions piece published online July 26 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Up to 1.6 Million Childbearing Women Possibly at Risk for Zika

MONDAY, July 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Up to 1.6 million childbearing women in Central and South America may be at risk for infection with the Zika virus by the end of the first phase of the epidemic, according to a letter published online July 25 in Nature Microbiology.

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CDC Updates Guidelines on Sexual Transmission of Zika

MONDAY, July 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) — U.S. health officials on Monday updated their Zika virus guidelines, saying that pregnant women could contract Zika from a sex partner of either gender.

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Total Drug Expenditures Projected to Increase in 2016

MONDAY, July 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Total drug expenditures are expected to increase by 11 to 13 percent in 2016, according to a study published online in the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy.

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Antimicrobial Rx Up With Hospitalization for Acute Mania

MONDAY, July 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Individuals hospitalized with acute mania have an increased rate of bacterial infections, as evidenced by the recent prescription of antimicrobial agents, according to a study published online July 17 in Bipolar Disorders.

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‘Walking Meetings’ Feasible Strategy for Employee Wellness

MONDAY, July 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Converting a single weekly meeting to a walking meeting can help raise work-related physical activity levels of white-collar workers, according to a report published online June 23 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Preventing Chronic Disease.

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Another Non-Travel Related Case of Zika in Florida

FRIDAY, July 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Florida health officials say they’re investigating a second possible case of locally transmitted Zika infection.

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Shared Drug Snorting Straws May Transmit Hepatitis C Virus

FRIDAY, July 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Sharing snorting straws for noninjection drug use may be a source for hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, according to research published in the August issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Widely Protective Vaccine Against Chlamydia Appears Promising

FRIDAY, July 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A vaccine to help protect against chlamydia is proving to be effective, according to an experimental study published in the July 25 issue of Vaccine.

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Rapid HIV Transmission Seen in Injection Drug Users in Rural U.S.

THURSDAY, July 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. prescription drug abuse epidemic has increased the risk of HIV outbreaks in rural and suburban communities, where up to now the virus has posed little threat, according to a report published in the July 21 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Health Expenditures Rising for Middle Class, Wealthy

THURSDAY, July 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) — While overall U.S. medical spending growth slowed between 2004 and 2013, expenditures rose for middle- and high-income Americans, according to research published in the July issue of Health Affairs.

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Seropositivity of Meningitis B Vaccine Lower Than Expected

THURSDAY, July 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) — About one-third of Princeton University students given a vaccine to combat a meningitis B outbreak on campus in 2013 didn’t show signs of protection against the infection eight weeks later, according to a study published in the July 21 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus in Florida

WEDNESDAY, July 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Florida health officials are investigating what could be the first case of locally transmitted Zika virus infection in the continental United States.

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ACS Endorses CDC’s HPV Vaccine Guidelines

WEDNESDAY, July 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The American Cancer Society has endorsed the U.S. government’s HPV vaccination recommendations, which include immunizing all preteens against human papillomavirus (HPV). The report was published online July 19 in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.

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Medicare Spending Up for Decedents Versus Survivors

WEDNESDAY, July 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Medicare per capita spending was much higher for beneficiaries who died during 2014 than for those who survived the entire year, according to a report published by the Kaiser Family Foundation.

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Global Fight Against HIV Remains Challenging

TUESDAY, July 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The number of HIV/AIDS deaths worldwide each year has fallen since peaking in 2005, but the number of new HIV infections is up in 74 countries, according to a study published online July 19 in The Lancet HIV to coincide with the 21st International AIDS Conference, held from July 18 to 22 in Durban, South Africa.

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ACOG Addresses Obstetrical Services and Zika Transmission

TUESDAY, July 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A new case of Zika virus infection associated with a very high Zika viral load has renewed attention to Zika transmission, according to the American College of Obstetrics & Gynecology (ACOG).

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Grindr Feasible for Distributing HIV Self-Tests to High-Risk MSM

TUESDAY, July 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The social networking app Grindr is feasible for distributing HIV self-test kits to men who have sex with men (MSM), according to a study published online recently in Sexual Health.

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Labor Compensation, Purchased Goods, Service Biggest Spends

TUESDAY, July 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Labor compensation remains the single largest contributor to costs among physicians’ offices, hospitals, and outpatient care centers, according to a report published in the July issue of Health Affairs.

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U.S. Zika Patient in Utah Apparently Infected Caregiver

MONDAY, July 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) — On Monday, U.S. health officials said they were trying to determine how a now-deceased elderly Utah man who had Zika managed to infect a family caregiver.

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Burnout Can Have Acute Personal, Professional Consequences

MONDAY, July 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Stress and burnout are increasingly prevalent among physicians, with serious personal and professional consequences, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Stellate Ganglion Block Beneficial in Postherpetic Neuralgia

MONDAY, July 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The therapeutic benefit of stellate ganglion block for debilitating photophobia secondary to trigeminal postherpetic neuralgia has been described in a case report published online July 5 in Pain Practice.

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Biologic Response Modifier Use in Kids Ups Infectious Complications

MONDAY, July 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) — For pediatric patients, the use of biologic response modifiers (BRMs) is associated with increased risk of infectious complications, according to a clinical report published online July 18 in Pediatrics.

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CDC Reports First Female-to-Male Sexual Transmission of Zika

FRIDAY, July 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A New York City woman who became infected with the Zika virus on a trip outside the United States passed the infection to her boyfriend during sex, according to research published in the July 15 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Growth in U.S. Health Spending Set to Average 5.8 Percent

FRIDAY, July 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Growth in U.S. health spending is expected to average 5.8 percent for 2015 to 2025, according to a study published in the July issue of Health Affairs.

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Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea on the Rise in the United States

FRIDAY, July 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Antibiotic-resistant cases of gonorrhea have more than quadrupled in the United States, according to research published in the July 15 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Supreme Court Ruling Could Impact Med School Admissions

THURSDAY, July 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling upholding the University of Texas at Austin’s consideration of race and ethnicity in college admissions has implications for medical schools, according to the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Mycobacterial Infections Linked to Medical Tourism Procedures

THURSDAY, July 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Health care providers should consider infection with mycobacteria in patients with surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment, according to a report published in the August issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Recommendations Updated for Use of Antiretroviral Tx in HIV

WEDNESDAY, July 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Recommendations for the use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection have been updated for adults, and published in the July 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on HIV/AIDS.

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Differences in Salary for Male, Female Faculty Physicians

WEDNESDAY, July 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) — For physicians with faculty appointments at 24 U.S. public medical schools there are significant salary differences between men and women, even after adjustment for confounding variables, according to a study published online July 11 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Small HIV Infection Risk in Condomless Sex With Use of ART

WEDNESDAY, July 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) — HIV transmission is highly unlikely among heterosexual couples who have sex without condoms when one partner carries the virus but takes antiretroviral therapy, according to a study published in the July 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on HIV/AIDS.

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Physicians Need to Be Prepared to Talk Zika

TUESDAY, July 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Physicians need to be prepared to speak to patients about Zika virus, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Second U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Colistin

TUESDAY, July 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Scientists have identified a second patient in the United States who was infected with a bacteria that is resistant to an antibiotic of last resort. The findings were published online July 11 in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

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Many Adults ‘Hoarding,’ Self-Prescribing Antibiotics

TUESDAY, July 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) — One in every 20 adults have used antibiotics without a doctor’s guidance, according to a study published online July 11 in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

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Utah Resident Is First Zika-Linked Death in Continental U.S.

MONDAY, July 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) — An elderly resident of Utah who died at the end of June is the first fatality in the continental United States linked to infection with the Zika virus, local health officials said Friday.

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Approval of First HPV Test for Use With SurePath Preservative Fluid

MONDAY, July 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Roche’s cobas HPV Test as the first diagnostic to be used with cervical cells obtained for a Pap test and collected in SurePath Preservative Fluid.

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Emetine Shows Promise for Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

MONDAY, July 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Emetine may represent a therapeutic option for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, according to a study published in the June issue of PLOS Pathogens.

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VA Appealing to Physicians to Join Agency

FRIDAY, July 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is appealing to physicians to join the agency as part of its recovery from a 2014 scandal linked to excessive wait times, according to a report published by the American Medical Association.

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Blood Test Might Help Diagnose Viral Versus Bacterial Infection

FRIDAY, July 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A blood test based on gene responses may help differentiate between bacterial and viral infections, according to a study published July 6 in Science Translational Medicine.

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CDC: Majority of HPV-Linked Cancers Are Preventable

FRIDAY, July 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The majority of cancers linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) are preventable, according to a report published in the July 8 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Toys in Waiting Room May Be Source of Infection

THURSDAY, July 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Toys help spread the flu and other viruses because germs can survive on plastic surfaces for 24 hours or more, according to a study published recently in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.

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Lab-Established Diagnosis Key for Persistent Diarrhea

THURSDAY, July 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Persistent diarrhea is typically caused by parasites or bacteria and requires accurate diagnosis in order to determine appropriate treatment, according to a review published online June 28 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Candida auris Causing Healthcare-Associated Infections

WEDNESDAY, July 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The emerging multidrug-resistant yeast Candida auris is causing invasive healthcare-associated infections with high mortality internationally, according to a clinical alert to U.S. healthcare facilities published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Step-by-Step Approach Valid for Febrile Infants

WEDNESDAY, July 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The Step-by-Step approach is valid for identifying febrile infants at risk for invasive bacterial infection (IBI), according to a study published online July 5 in Pediatrics.

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Familial Clustering of Staphylococcus aureus Found

WEDNESDAY, July 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) — History of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in a first-degree relative, especially a sibling, is associated with an increased rate of the disease, according to a study published online July 4 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Many Clinical Trials Are Not Listed in Data-Sharing Repository

WEDNESDAY, July 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Only about half of trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov are listed in the largest data-sharing repository, according to a research letter published online June 28 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Risk of Noncervical Anogenital Cancer Up With History of CIN2/3

WEDNESDAY, July 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Women with a history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2 or CIN3 have increased risks of subsequent development of anal, vulvar, and vaginal cancers, according to a study published online June 29 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Invasive Prenatal Testing Doesn’t Up HIV Transmission Risk

FRIDAY, July 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) — For pregnant women with HIV infection, invasive prenatal testing does not increase the risk of vertical transmission, according to a study published online June 20 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology.

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Extended-Spectrum Antibiotics No Benefit for Pediatric Appendicitis

FRIDAY, July 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) — For children diagnosed with appendicitis undergoing appendectomy, extended-spectrum antibiotics seem to offer no advantage over narrower-spectrum agents, according to a study published online June 28 in Pediatrics.

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