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March 2016 Briefing – Infectious Disease

March 2016 Briefing – Infectious Disease
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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for March 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Stillbirth Less Likely for Women Receiving Trivalent Flu Vaccine

THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Women receiving trivalent influenza vaccination are less likely to experience a stillbirth, especially for births occurring just after influenza season, according to a study published online March 30 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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FDA Allows Use of Investigational Zika Test for Blood Donations

THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) — An experimental test to check blood donations for the Zika virus has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Reactivation of HSV Described in Patient After Cataract Surgery

THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) — In a letter to the editor published online March 24 in Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, a case of reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) uveitis is described in a patient with unexplained persistent elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) following intraocular surgery.

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No Benefit for Longer-Term Antibiotic Tx in Lyme Disease

WEDNESDAY, March 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Longer-term antibiotic treatment does not improve health-related quality of life compared with shorter-term treatment among patients with persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme disease, according to a study published in the March 31 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Entry Receptor for Zika Virus Identified in Brain, Retina

WEDNESDAY, March 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The candidate viral entry receptor for Zika virus, AXL, is highly expressed by cells in the developing human cortex and retina, according to an experimental study published online March 30 in Cell Stem Cell.

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Many Don’t Know Key Facts About Zika Virus Transmission

WEDNESDAY, March 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Many individuals are unaware of the exact nature of Zika virus transmission, according to a report published online March 29 by the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

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Burden of Hep C Virus Substantial Despite Oral Antiviral Therapy

WEDNESDAY, March 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and associated disease is projected to remain considerable even in the era of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), according to a study published online March 25 in Hepatology.

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AMA Addresses Elements of Team-Based Care Model

TUESDAY, March 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The elements of a team-based care model are described in a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Pediatricians Should Be Familiar With Zika Virus Infection

TUESDAY, March 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Pediatricians should be familiar with Zika virus infection, which can affect all age groups, including children, according to a study published online March 28 in Pediatrics.

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How Can We Fix the Wage Gap Among Female Physicians?

MONDAY, March 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Women doctors can address the gender wage disparity by understanding the reasons why they earn less, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Standard Precautions Advised in Labor & Delivery to Prevent Zika

MONDAY, March 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Standard Precautions should be used in all health care settings, including labor and delivery, in order to minimize the potential risk of transmission of Zika virus to health care personnel or other patients, according to research published in the March 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Genome Sequencing IDs Time of Zika’s Arrival in the Americas

THURSDAY, March 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The Zika virus likely arrived in the Americas between May and December 2013, more than a year before it was first reported in Brazil, according to a study published online March 24 in Science.

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CDC: Tuberculosis Decline in the United States Has Hit a Plateau

THURSDAY, March 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Two decades of progress toward eliminating tuberculosis (TB) in the United States has stalled, with incidence of the disease holding steady from 2013 to 2015, according to a report published in the March 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report in conjunction with World TB Day.

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Total Medical Costs of $16K for IFN-Based Antiviral Tx for HCV

THURSDAY, March 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The total medical costs associated with interferon (IFN)-based antiviral treatment among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection average €14,559, with a mean cost of €38,514 per sustained virological response (SVR), according to a study published online March 18 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Report of Bone Marrow/Liver Pathology Caused by Syphilis

WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A case of acquired syphilis leading to involvement of the bone marrow and liver is described in a report published online March 22 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Alterations in Eye Microbiota Linked to Contact Lenses

WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Contact lenses may alter the natural bacterial environment of eyes, according to new findings published online March 22 in mBio.

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Wrestling Wins for Most High School Athletic Skin Infections

TUESDAY, March 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Among U.S. high school athletes, the rate of skin infections is 2.27 per 100,000 athlete exposures, with the majority occurring in wrestlers, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Endogenous Endophthalmitis ID’d After Breast Implant Surgery

TUESDAY, March 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) — In a case report published online March 17 in JAMA Ophthalmology, bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis with chorioretinal involvement due to Candida albicans a few hours after breast augmentation surgery has been documented.

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FDA Approves Anthim for Treating Inhalation Anthrax

MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Anthim (obiltoxaximab) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat inhalational anthrax.

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FDA: Most Powdered Medical Gloves Should Be Banned in U.S.

MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration wants to ban most powdered medical gloves, saying they pose serious health risks to patients and health care providers alike.

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CDC: 116 Travel-Associated Zika Cases in U.S. So Far This Year

FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) — During the first two months of this year, 116 U.S. residents have tested positive for infection with the Zika virus, and all but one were linked to travel to regions endemic for the virus. The findings were reported in the March 18 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Rate of Transmission of Clostridium difficile Quantified

FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) transmit C. difficile at a much higher rate than that of asymptomatic carriers and community sources, according to a report published in the April issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Case Before Supreme Court May Expose Doctors to Large Fines

FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A case before a state supreme court could potentially expose physicians to large fines based on a legal technicality relating to what they should have known, rather than what they knew, according to the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Drop in S. aureus Carriage Rate With Antibiotic Tx of Acne

FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Treatment of acne with antibiotics is associated with a significant decrease in the rate of Staphylococcus aureus carriage, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Case Report: Ceftriaxone-Linked Renal Toxicity in Adult Male

FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A case of ceftriaxone-associated renal toxicity in an adult has been documented in a case report published online Feb. 23 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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Predictions Made for Zika Arrival in U.S. Cities This Summer

THURSDAY, March 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Some major U.S. cities, including New York City and Los Angeles, could face outbreaks of the Zika virus this summer, according to a report published online March 16 in PLOS Currents: Outbreaks.

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Non-HIV-Related Kaposi Sarcoma in BRAFi-Treated Patient

THURSDAY, March 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) — In a case report published online Feb. 28 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, researchers document non-HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma in a male patient with myasthenia gravis and metastatic melanoma treated with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib.

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Many Cases of MERS-CoV Are Health Care-Associated

THURSDAY, March 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) infections are frequently associated with health care settings, according to a report published in the April issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Spending on Prescription Meds Up About 5 Percent in 2015

THURSDAY, March 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Spending on prescription medications for insured Americans increased about 5 percent in 2015, with the increase half of that seen in 2014, the Associated Press reported.

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Antibiotic Resistance in Pediatric UTIs Up Globally

WEDNESDAY, March 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Many children who develop urinary tract infections (UTIs) tied to the Escherichia coli bacteria are now failing to respond to antibiotic treatment, according to research published online March 15 in The BMJ.

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Disruptive Patients Distract Docs, May Receive Compromised Care

WEDNESDAY, March 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Disruptive patients may get worse care from physicians, according to a study published online March 7 in BMJ Quality & Safety. The findings aren’t definitive because the researchers tested how physicians responded in fictional vignettes, instead of real-life encounters. Still, the results suggest that such patients distract physicians from doing their jobs.

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HIV-Seropositive CIN3+ Patients Have Lower HPV16 Prevalence

TUESDAY, March 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) — HIV-seropositive women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade ≥3 (CIN3+) are less likely to have human papillomavirus (HPV) 16, according to a study published in the March issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Influenza Vaccine Safe for Patients in Hospital for Surgery

TUESDAY, March 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Surgery patients don’t have an increased risk for complications if they receive an influenza vaccine while in the hospital, according to a study published online March 15 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Mayo Clinic Has Established Model to Help Battle Burnout

TUESDAY, March 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) — In an effort to reduce burnout among physicians, the Mayo Clinic is initiating a model to raise camaraderie and increase collaboration, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Two-Dose Varicella Vaccine Offers Improved Protection

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Giving one dose of the varicella vaccine at age 1 and a second dose at ages 4 to 6 is nearly 100 percent effective in preventing varicella, according to a study published online March 14 in Pediatrics.

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Guidance Offered for Negotiating Higher Rates From Payers

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Negotiations to increase payment from insurance companies can be extremely difficult, although it is possible to get a payment increase, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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UVA-Riboflavin Cuts Antibiotic-Resistant, Non-Resistant Bacteria

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Riboflavin-ultraviolet A (UVA) collagen crosslinking (CXL) used in photoactivated chromophore for infectious keratitis (PACK) has bactericidal efficacy for both antibiotic resistant and non-resistant bacteria, according to a study published online Feb. 11 in Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology.

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FDA Gives Tentative Approval to Tests of Gene-Modified Mosquitos

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) — U.S. health officials on Friday gave tentative approval to a field test in the Florida Keys of mosquitoes genetically modified to help curb the spread of the Zika virus.

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Doctor Communication Supports Parents’ Beliefs About Antibiotics

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Clinician communication and prescribing behavior reinforce parents’ understanding of antibiotic treatment, according to a study published in the March/April issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Diabetes Patients More Susceptible to Staph Bacteremia

FRIDAY, March 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Patients with diabetes may be significantly more likely to develop community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (CA-SAB) than those without diabetes, according to a study published online March 10 in the European Journal of Endocrinology.

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Disclosure of Sexual Identity Linked to Receipt of HIV Testing

THURSDAY, March 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) — For rural men who have sex with men, disclosure of sexual identity is associated with increased uptake of HIV testing and hepatitis vaccinations, according to a study published in the March/April issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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CDC: Zika Poses Serious Threat to Puerto Rico

THURSDAY, March 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) — U.S. health officials issued an assessment Thursday of the continued spread of the Zika virus, which is already suspected of causing thousands of birth defects in Brazil and has made inroads into Puerto Rico.

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Zika Now Tied to Meningoencephalitis

THURSDAY, March 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The list of neurological disorders potentially associated with the Zika virus continues to grow, according to a letter to the editor and a perspective piece published online March 9 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Combo Tx Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses From Malaria

THURSDAY, March 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A combination drug therapy widely used to treat malaria in adults — dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) — also protects pregnant women and their fetuses from the disease, according to research published in the March 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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CDC: U.S. Cancer Mortality Rate Continues to Fall

WEDNESDAY, March 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Overall rates of cancer and cancer mortality in the United States continue to decline, according to the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, a yearly report issued by the American Cancer Society, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The report was published online March 9 in Cancer.

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Physicians’ Contracts Can Affect Patients, Professionalism

WEDNESDAY, March 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Problematic clauses in physicians’ contracts can impact patient care and professionalism, according to an Ideas and Opinions piece published online March 8 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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USPSTF Urges Screening for Adults at High Risk of Latent TB

TUESDAY, March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in adults at increased risk. These findings form the basis of a draft recommendation statement, published online March 8 by the USPSTF.

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Large Number of Mutations Needed to ID TB Drug Resistance

MONDAY, March 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) — In order to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance, a large number of mutations are needed, according to a study published online Feb. 24 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Bloodstream Infection Outbreak in Wisconsin Linked to 18 Deaths

FRIDAY, March 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The source of a bacterial bloodstream infection linked with the deaths of 18 people in Wisconsin is being sought by federal, state, and local health officials.

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Scientists Report Insights Into Zika Virus and Microcephaly

FRIDAY, March 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Laboratory studies have shown that Zika can infect a type of neural stem cell that gives rise to the cerebral cortex of the brain, according to research published online March 4 in Cell Stem Cell.

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CDC: Hospitals Making Progress Against Antibiotic Resistance

FRIDAY, March 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Although U.S. hospitals are making gains in the fight against some antibiotic-resistant bacteria, too many patients are still affected in health care facilities, according to a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Lens Surface, Care Solution Affect Adhesion of Acanthamoeba

FRIDAY, March 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Both rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens surface and multipurpose contact lens care solutions (MPSs) impact adhesion rates of Acanthamoeba castellanii (AC) trophozoites, according to a study published in the March issue of Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics.

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Location, Age Affect Hospital Visitor Hand Sanitizer Use

FRIDAY, March 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Location, time of day, and age, as well as being in a group, are all associated with increased use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (AHS) for hospital visitors, according to a study published in the March 1 issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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Google Pledges $1 Million to Help Fight Zika Virus

THURSDAY, March 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A $1 million donation to fight the spread of the Zika virus and an offer to help analyze data to predict the spread of the mosquito-borne disease was announced by Google.

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Red Ginseng, Vitamin C May Increase Immune Cell Activity

THURSDAY, March 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Red ginseng and vitamin C enhance immune cell activation and suppress viral infection in mice, according to an experimental study published online Feb. 21 in the Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

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Decrease in Pediatric S. aureus Infections Due to MRSA

THURSDAY, March 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The proportion of pediatric Staphylococcus aureus infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus seems to be decreasing in pediatric populations, according to a study published online March 1 in Pediatrics.

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Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Superior for Abscess

THURSDAY, March 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole results in a higher clinical cure rate of uncomplicated abscesses than placebo, according to a study published in the March 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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FDA: Guidance to Help Prevent Donor-Related Zika Infection

WEDNESDAY, March 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued new guidance for reducing the potential transmission risk of Zika virus from human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps).

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SCOTUS: States Can’t Force Health Care Data Release

WEDNESDAY, March 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) — The Supreme Court has ruled against state efforts to collect health care data from insurance plans.

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Spouse Education Level May Impact Choice for Rural Practice

WEDNESDAY, March 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Physicians who are married to a highly-educated spouse are less likely to work in rural underserved areas, according to a study published in the March 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Case of Hepatitis E Transmission Via Plasma Exchange

WEDNESDAY, March 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) — A case of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been reported in a kidney transplant recipient, according to a research letter published online March 1 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Zika Infection Linked to Guillain-Barré Syndrome

TUESDAY, March 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Zika virus infection may be associated with incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome, according to a study published online Feb. 29 in The Lancet.

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