EBioMedicine 2015 11 253() 100-7 doi 10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.11.040
HIV-infected patients with pulmonary TB (pTB) can have worsening of respiratory symptoms as part of TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Thus, reconstitution of immune function on ART could drive incident lung damage in HIV/TB.
We hypothesized that increases in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which can degrade lung matrix, on ART are associated with TB-IRIS among a cohort of advanced, ART naïve, HIV-infected adults with pTB. Furthermore, we related early changes in immune measures and MMPs on ART to lung function in an exploratory subset of patients post-TB cure. This study was nested within a prospective cohort study. Rank sum and chi-square tests, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, and logistic regression were used for analyses.
Increases in MMP-8 following ART initiation were independently associated with TB-IRIS (p = 0.04; adjusted odds ratio 1.5 [95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.1]; n = 32). Increases in CD4 counts and MMP-8 on ART were also associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one-second post-TB treatment completion (r = – 0.7, p = 0.006 and r = – 0.6, p = 0.02, respectively; n = 14).
ART-induced MMP increases are associated with TB-IRIS and may affect lung function post-TB cure. End-organ damage due to TB-IRIS and mechanisms whereby immune restoration impairs lung function in pTB deserve further investigation.