Lenalidomide, an oral immunomodulating agent, has shown promising activity in HIV-infected individuals with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). This single-arm, multicenter, open-label, Gehan’s two-stage phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide in HIV-infected patients with progressive KS despite previous chemotherapy (NCT01282047, ANRS 154 Lenakap trial). The primary endpoint was the rate of partial response (PR) or complete response (CR) at week 24, evaluated by both the study investigators and the patients using the Physical Global Assessment (PGA). AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) criteria for KS treatment evaluation were used as a secondary endpoint. The data and safety monitoring board recommended that enrollments be halted on April 24, 2013, because of lack of responses. We enrolled 12 antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected men with progressive KS despite previous chemotherapy. Their HIV plasma viral load was <50 copies/ml and their median CD4 cell count 444/mm(3). One patient stopped taking lenalidomide because of hives at week 1 and a second patient died at week 7. The remaining 10 patients were assessable at week 24, when none had PGA-defined CR or PR and one had ACTG-defined PR. There were no additional PGA responses at week 48, but an additional three patients had ACTG responses, for a total of four patients with ACTG PR at week 48 (40%; 95% confidence interval: 12.2-73.8). Fourteen grade 3-4 adverse events were considered at least possibly related to lenalidomide during a total of 101 cycles. Lenalidomide was well tolerated in antiretroviral experienced patients with progressive KS previously treated with chemotherapy. The ACTG-defined response rate at week 48 was 40%, while it was 0% using PGA criteria.
Phase II Trial of Lenalidomide in HIV-Infected Patients with Previously Treated Kaposi’s Sarcoma: Results of the ANRS 154 Lenakap Trial.