World journal of psychiatry 2016 03 226(1) 128-35 doi 10.5498/wjp.v6.i1.128
To determine if efforts to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence minimizes the negative impact of depression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outcomes.
A cross-sectional study of a clinic-based cohort of 158 HIV seropositive (HIV+) African Americans screened for major depressive disorder (MDD) in 2012. CD4 T lymphocyte (CD4+) counts were obtained from these individuals. Self-report on adherence to ART was determined from questionnaire administered during clinic visits. The primary outcome measure was conditional odds of having a poorer CD4+ count (< 350 cells/mm(3)). Association between CD4+ count and antidepressant-treated or untreated MDD subjects was examined controlling for self-reported adherence and other potential confounders. RESULTS
Out of 147 individuals with available CD4+ T lymphocyte data, 31% hadCD4+ count < 350 cells/mm(3) and 28% reported poor ART adherence. As expected the group with > 350 cells/mm(3) CD4+ T lymphocyte endorsed significantly greater ART adherence compared to the group with < 350 cells/mm(3) CD4+ T lymphocyte count (P < 0.004). Prevalence of MDD was 39.5% and 66% of individuals with MDD took antidepressants. Poor CD4+ T lymphocyte count was associated with poor ART adherence and MDD. Adjusting for ART adherence, age, sex and education, which were potential confounders, the association between MDD and poor CD4+ T lymphocyte remained significant only in the untreated MDD group. CONCLUSION
Therefore, CD4+ count could be a clinical marker of untreated depression in HIV+. Also, mental health care may be relevant to primary care of HIV+ patients.