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Prevalence of Drug Resistance Mycobacterium Tuberculosis among Patients Seen in Coast Provincial General Hospital, Mombasa, Kenya.

Prevalence of Drug Resistance Mycobacterium Tuberculosis among Patients Seen in Coast Provincial General Hospital, Mombasa, Kenya.
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Ombura IP, Onyango N, Odera S, Mutua F, Nyagol J,


Ombura IP, Onyango N, Odera S, Mutua F, Nyagol J, (click to view)

Ombura IP, Onyango N, Odera S, Mutua F, Nyagol J,

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PloS one 2016 Oct 611(10) e0163994 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0163994

Abstract
BACKGROUND
Although prevention and control of spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains is a global challenge, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of DR-TB in patients diagnosed with TB in referral hospitals in Kenya. The present study assessed patients’ characteristics and prevalence of drug resistant TB in sputa smear positive TB patients presenting to Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) in Mombasa, Kenya.

METHODS
Drug resistance was evaluated in 258 randomly selected sputa smear TB positive cases between the periods of November 2011 to February 2012 at the CPGH-Mombasa. Basic demographic data was obtained using administered questionnaires, and clinical history extracted from the files. For laboratory analyses, 2mls of sputum was obtained, decontaminated and subjected to mycobacteria DNA analyses. Detection of first line drug resistance genes was done using MDRTDR plus kit. This was followed with random selection of 83 cases for second line drug resistance genes testing using Genotype MDRTBsl probe assay kit (HAINS Lifesciences, GmbH, Germany), in which ethambutol mutation probes were included. The data was then analyzed using SPSS statistical package version 19.0.

RESULTS
Male to female ratio was 1:2. Age range was 9 to 75 years, with median of 30 years. New treatment cases constituted 253(98%), among which seven turned out to be PTB negative, and further grouped as 4 (1.6%) PTB negative and 3(1.1%) NTM. 237(91.7%) new cases were fully susceptible to INH and RIF. The remaining, 8 (3.1%) and 1(0.4%) had mono- resistance to INH and RIF, respectively. All the retreatment cases were fully susceptible to the first line drugs. HIV positivity was found in 48 (18.6%) cases, of which 46(17.8%) were co-infected with TB. Of these, 44 (17.1%) showed full susceptibility to TB drugs, while 2 (0.8%) were INH resistant. For the second line drugs, one case each showed mono resistance to both and FQ. Also, one case each showed drug cross poly resistance to both ETH and FQ, with second line injectable antibiotics. However, no significant statistical correlation was established between TB and resistance to the second line drugs p = 0.855.

CONCLUSION
The findings of this study showed the existence of resistance to both first and second line anti-tubercular drugs, but no MDR-TB and XDR-TB was detected among patients attending TB clinic at CPGH using molecular techniques.

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