Scientific reports 2016 09 096() 32900 doi 10.1038/srep32900
The aim of the present study was to investigate if macrophage proliferation occurs in the brain during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of adult macaques. We examined the expression of the Ki-67 proliferation marker in the brains of uninfected and SIV-infected macaques with or without encephalitis. Double-label immunohistochemistry using antibodies against the pan-macrophage marker CD68 and Ki-67 showed that there was a significant increase in CD68+Ki-67+ cells in macaques with SIV encephalitis (SIVE) compared to uninfected and SIV-infected animals without encephalitis, a trend that was also confirmed in brain samples from patients with HIV encephalitis. Multi-label immunofluorescence for CD163 and Ki-67 confirmed that the vast majority of Ki-67+ nuclei were localized to CD163+ macrophages in perivascular cuffs and lesions. The proliferative capacity of Ki-67+ perivascular macrophages (PVM) was confirmed by their nuclear incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine. Examining SIVE lesions, using double-label immunofluorescence with antibodies against SIV-Gag-p28 and Ki-67, showed that the population of Ki-67+ cells were productively infected and expanded proportionally with lesions. Altogether, this study shows that there are subpopulations of resident PVM that express Ki-67 and are SIV-infected, suggesting a mechanism of macrophage accumulation in the brain via PVM proliferation.