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Selectivity for strand-transfer over 3′-processing and susceptibility to clinical resistance of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors are driven by key enzyme-DNA interactions in the active site.

Selectivity for strand-transfer over 3′-processing and susceptibility to clinical resistance of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors are driven by key enzyme-DNA interactions in the active site.
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Métifiot M, Johnson BC, Kiselev E, Marler L, Zhao XZ, Burke TR, Marchand C, Hughes SH, Pommier Y,


Métifiot M, Johnson BC, Kiselev E, Marler L, Zhao XZ, Burke TR, Marchand C, Hughes SH, Pommier Y, (click to view)

Métifiot M, Johnson BC, Kiselev E, Marler L, Zhao XZ, Burke TR, Marchand C, Hughes SH, Pommier Y,

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Nucleic acids research 2016 07 0144(14) 6896-906 doi 10.1093/nar/gkw592

Abstract

Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are highly effective against HIV infections. Co-crystal structures of the prototype foamy virus intasome have shown that all three FDA-approved drugs, raltegravir (RAL), elvitegravir and dolutegravir (DTG), act as interfacial inhibitors during the strand transfer (ST) integration step. However, these structures give only a partial sense for the limited inhibition of the 3′-processing reaction by INSTIs and how INSTIs can be modified to overcome drug resistance, notably against the G140S-Q148H double mutation. Based on biochemical experiments with modified oligonucleotides, we demonstrate that both the viral DNA +1 and -1 bases, which flank the 3′-processing site, play a critical role for 3′-processing efficiency and inhibition by RAL and DTG. In addition, the G140S-Q148H (SH) mutant integrase, which has a reduced 3′-processing activity, becomes more active and more resistant to inhibition of 3′-processing by RAL and DTG in the absence of the -1 and +1 bases. Molecular modeling of HIV-1 integrase, together with biochemical data, indicate that the conserved residue Q146 in the flexible loop of HIV-1 integrase is critical for productive viral DNA binding through specific contacts with the virus DNA ends in the 3′-processing and ST reactions. The potency of integrase inhibitors against 3′-processing and their ability to overcome resistance is discussed.

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