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Self-reported use of novel psychoactive substances among attendees of electronic dance music venues.

Author Information (click to view)

Palamar JJ, Acosta P, Sherman S, Ompad DC, Cleland CM,


Palamar JJ, Acosta P, Sherman S, Ompad DC, Cleland CM, (click to view)

Palamar JJ, Acosta P, Sherman S, Ompad DC, Cleland CM,

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The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse 2016 6 17() 1-9

Abstract
BACKGROUND
Novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) continue to emerge in the United States and worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of use.

OBJECTIVE
We examined the extent of NPS use in a high-risk population-attendees of electronic dance music (EDM) parties at nightclubs and festivals.

METHODS
We surveyed 682 adults (age 18-25) entering EDM events at nightclubs and festivals in New York City (NYC) in 2015. A variation of time-space sampling was used. We examined the prevalence of self-reported use of 196 NPS and correlates of any NPS use.

RESULTS
Over a third (35.1%) of participants reported lifetime use of any NPS. Self-reported use of synthetic cannabinoids was most prevalent (16.3%), followed by psychedelic phenethylamines (14.7%; 2C series: 10.3%, 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine [NBOMe] series: 9.0%, Dox series: 3.5%), synthetic cathinones ("bath salts", 6.9%), other psychedelics (6.6%), tryptamines (5.1%), and dissociatives (4.3%). 2C-I was the most prevalent 2C series drug (5.1%); methylone was the most prevalent synthetic cathinone (3.3%), 2-MeO-ketamine was the most prevalent dissociative (3.7%), and 1P-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (2.9%) was the most prevalent non-phenethylamine psychedelic. Risk factors for NPS use included Ecstasy/MDMA/Molly, LSD, and ketamine use; identifying as bisexual (compared to heterosexual), reporting higher frequency of nightclub/festival attendance, and being surveyed outside of a festival (compared to those surveyed outside of nightclubs).

DISCUSSION
NPS use is prevalent in the nightclub and festival scenes in NYC. Since individuals in these scenes-especially frequent attendees-are at high risk for use, prevention and harm reduction services need to be geared toward this population.

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