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Short-term and long-term cardiovascular risk, metabolic syndrome and HIV in Tanzania.

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Kingery JR, Alfred Y, Smart LR, Nash E, Todd J, Naguib MR, Downs JA, Kalluvya S, Kataraihya JB, Peck RN,


Kingery JR, Alfred Y, Smart LR, Nash E, Todd J, Naguib MR, Downs JA, Kalluvya S, Kataraihya JB, Peck RN, (click to view)

Kingery JR, Alfred Y, Smart LR, Nash E, Todd J, Naguib MR, Downs JA, Kalluvya S, Kataraihya JB, Peck RN,

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Heart (British Cardiac Society) 2016 4 22() pii 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-309026

Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To compare short-term and long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected adults receiving and not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) to HIV-negative controls.

METHODS
A cross-sectional study including 151 HIV-infected, ART-naive, 150 HIV-infected on ART and 153 HIV-negative adults. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were determined by standard investigations. The primary outcome was American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) Risk Estimator lifetime CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes were ASCVD 10-year risk, Framingham risk scores, statin indication and metabolic syndrome.

RESULTS
Compared with HIV-negative controls, more HIV-infected adults on ART were classified as high lifetime CVD risk (34.7% vs 17.0%, p<0.001) although 10-year risk scores were similar, a trend which was similar across multiple CVD risk models. In addition, HIV-infected adults on ART had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome versus HIV-negative controls (21.3% vs 7.8%, p=0.008), with two common clusters of risk factors. More than one-quarter (28.7%) of HIV-infected Tanzanian adults on ART meet criteria for statin initiation. CONCLUSIONS
HIV-infected ART-treated individuals have high lifetime cardiovascular risk, and this risk seems to develop rapidly in the first 3-4 years of ART as does the development of clusters of metabolic syndrome criteria. These data identify a new subgroup of low short-term/high-lifetime risk HIV-infected individuals on ART who do not currently meet criteria for CVD risk factor modification but require further study.

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