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Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated factors among homeless individuals in Dessie and Debre Birhan towns, Northeast Ethiopia.

Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated factors among homeless individuals in Dessie and Debre Birhan towns, Northeast Ethiopia.
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Semunigus T, Tessema B, Eshetie S, Moges F,


Semunigus T, Tessema B, Eshetie S, Moges F, (click to view)

Semunigus T, Tessema B, Eshetie S, Moges F,

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Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials 2016 08 3115(1) 50 doi 10.1186/s12941-016-0165-x

Abstract
BACKGROUND
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the globe’s deadliest communicable diseases. The homeless individuals are at high risk to acquire TB and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), because of their poor living conditions and risky behaviors. Tuberculosis and MDR-TB in the homeless individuals can pose a risk to entire communities. However, the magnitude of the problem is not known in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB) and MDR-TB among homeless individuals in Dessie and Debre Birhan towns, Northeast Ethiopia.

METHODS
A community based cross-sectional study design was conducted from September 2014 to June 2015. Using an active screening with cough of ≥2 weeks, 351 TB suspects homeless individuals were participated in this study. Data were collected by using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Spot-morning-spot sputum sample was collected and examined for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using fluorescence microscopy by Auramine O staining technique. All AFB positive sputum was further analyzed by GeneXpert for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rifampicin resistant gene. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to identify factors associated with smear positive PTB and P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS
The prevalence of smear positive PTB was 2.6 % (95 % CI 1.3-5) among TB suspect homeless individuals. Extrapolation of this study finding implies that there were 505 smear positive PTB per 100,000 homeless individuals. All smear positive PTB sputum specimens were further analyzed by GeneXpert assay, the assay confirmed that all were positive for MTBC but none were resistant to RIF or MDR. Smoking cigarette regularly for greater than 5 years (AOR 10.1, 95 % CI 1.1, 97.7), body mass index lower than 18.5 (AOR 6.9, 95 % CI 1.12, 41.1) and HIV infection (AOR 6.8, 95 % CI 1.1, 40.1) were significantly associated with smear positive PTB.

CONCLUSION
The prevalence of smear positive PTB among TB suspect homeless individuals was 2.6 %. Among smear positive PTB, prevalence of HIV co-infection was very high 5 (55.5 %). Smoking cigarette regularly for greater than 5 years, BMI lower than 18.5 and HIV infection were factors associated with smear positive PTB. Special emphasis is needed for homeless individuals to exert intensive effort to identify undetected TB cases to limit the circulation of the disease into the community.

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