Helminthic infection and HIV have been reported to coexist, particularly in sub-Saharan African patients living with HIV. Strongyloidiasis is one of the most common helminths, usually leading to cutaneous and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In the immunocompromised host, this infection can lead to strongyloidiasis hyperinfection syndrome (SHS), not common in HIV-infected patients. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) can follow the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), with a variety of presentations. The authors present here a 32-year-old HIV-infected female who was recently diagnosed with AIDS, started ART, and recovered from SHS. Her upper endoscopy revealed severe duodenitis but no causal agent per biopsy or stool examination. After receiving symptomatic therapy, she showed improvement, a course of events that fit the diagnosis of GI-related IRIS.
Strongyloidiasis-Related IRIS: A Case Report and Literature Review.