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Systemic immune response and virus persistence after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of naïve cattle and cattle vaccinated with a homologous adenovirus-vectored vaccine.

Systemic immune response and virus persistence after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of naïve cattle and cattle vaccinated with a homologous adenovirus-vectored vaccine.
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Eschbaumer M, Stenfeldt C, Rekant SI, Pacheco JM, Hartwig EJ, Smoliga GR, Kenney MA, Golde WT, Rodriguez LL, Arzt J,


Eschbaumer M, Stenfeldt C, Rekant SI, Pacheco JM, Hartwig EJ, Smoliga GR, Kenney MA, Golde WT, Rodriguez LL, Arzt J, (click to view)

Eschbaumer M, Stenfeldt C, Rekant SI, Pacheco JM, Hartwig EJ, Smoliga GR, Kenney MA, Golde WT, Rodriguez LL, Arzt J,

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BMC veterinary research 2016 09 1512() 205 doi 10.1186/s12917-016-0838-x

Abstract
BACKGROUND
In order to investigate host factors associated with the establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection, the systemic response to vaccination and challenge was studied in 47 steers. Eighteen steers that had received a recombinant FMDV A vaccine 2 weeks earlier and 29 non-vaccinated steers were challenged by intra-nasopharyngeal deposition of FMDV A24. For up to 35 days after challenge, host factors including complete blood counts with T lymphocyte subsets, type I/III interferon (IFN) activity, neutralizing and total FMDV-specific antibody titers in serum, as well as antibody-secreting cells (in 6 non-vaccinated animals) were characterized in the context of viral infection dynamics.

RESULTS
Vaccination generally induced a strong antibody response. There was a transient peak of FMDV-specific serum IgM in non-vaccinated animals after challenge, while IgM levels in vaccinated animals did not increase further. Both groups had a lasting increase of specific IgG and neutralizing antibody after challenge. Substantial systemic IFN activity in non-vaccinated animals coincided with viremia, and no IFN or viremia was detected in vaccinated animals. After challenge, circulating lymphocytes decreased in non-vaccinated animals, coincident with viremia, IFN activity, and clinical disease, whereas lymphocyte and monocyte counts in vaccinated animals were unaffected by vaccination but transiently increased after challenge. The CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell ratio in non-vaccinated animals increased during acute infection, driven by an absolute decrease of CD8(+) cells.

CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of FMDV persistence was 61.5 % in non-vaccinated and 54.5 % in vaccinated animals. Overall, the systemic factors examined were not associated with the FMDV carrier/non-carrier divergence; however, significant differences were identified between responses of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle.

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