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Conference Highlights: CROI 2012

CROI 2012, the annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, took place from March 5-8 in Seattle. The features below highlight just some of the studies that emerged from the conference. Can Circumcision Decrease Herpes Risk? Deferred Vs Immediate ART in Children Reducing Risk in Partners of HIV-Positive Individuals Monthly HIV Prophylaxis Appears Promising Sustaining Virologic Responses in HIV-HCV Coinfection Can Circumcision Decrease Herpes Risk? The Particulars: Previous research has shown that males who undergo circumcision can help reduce their risk of contracting HIV infection. Less is known about additional long-term effects of circumcision with regard to the transmission of other infectious diseases. Data Breakdown: Investigators conducted a study of men in a South African town before and after a roll-out of a circumcision project. The prevalence of circumcision increased from 15.6% to 49.4% among those aged 15 to 49. The prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) among uncircumcised men was 30.8%, compared with 17.1% among circumcised men. Circumcision led to a 27.0% reduction in the risk of acquiring HSV-2. Take Home Pearl:Circumcision appears to reduce the risk of contracting HIV infection and also significantly reduces the likelihood of contracting HSV-2 among recipients of the procedure. [back to top] Deferred Vs Immediate ART in Children The Particulars: Immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) during infancy has been shown to benefit HIV-infected babies. However, this treatment strategy may put HIV-infected babies at risk for drug side effects and resistance to available treatments, among other potential concerns. Data Breakdown: A study of infants who received immediate ART found that those who stopped treatment after 1 to 2 years appeared to fare significantly better...

Conference Highlights: CROI 2011

This feature highlights some of the studies that emerged from the 2011 CROI annual conference, including the protective effects of circumcision against HIV, treatment of HIV-tuberculosis coinfection, and research on HIV-resistant T cells. » Circumcision Provides Protection Against HIV » Prompt Treatment Needed for HIV-TB Coinfection » Nurse Care Effective in HIV Management » Optimism on HIV-Resistant T Cells  Circumcision Provides Protection Against HIV The Particulars: Previous research has suggested that circumcising men may help protect them in the future from contracting the HIV virus. Findings from recent original randomized trials have suggested that circumcision reduces the risk of catching HIV by about 50%. Clinicians have expressed some concern about the effect of male circumcision on changing sexual behaviors and the adoption of more risk practices. A study was conducted to see how circumcision affects both the risk of HIV and human behavior. Data Breakdown:Researchers found that HIV incidence was 73% lower among trial participants who were circumcised and those who got circumcised later when compared with those in a control arm who did not accept circumcision. Researchers offered men in the control arm the chance to be circumcised, and 80.4% accepted. Among control participants who were circumcised, the risk of HIV was reduced 67%, compared with the men who declined the procedure. In post-trial surveillance, the study group observed no change in the number of non-marital sex partners between intervention and control patients. There was also no significant difference in condom use between the 1,321 men who got circumcised and the 372 who did not. Take Home Pearls: The benefit of male circumcision for HIV prevention appears to persist, even...
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