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CROI 2016

CROI 2016

New research was presented at CROI 2016, the annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, from February 22 to 25 in Boston. The features below highlight some of the studies that emerged from the conference.   New Lifetime HIV Risk Estimates The Particulars: In 2004, the CDC estimated that the lifetime risk of being diagnosed with HIV was 1.29%, or one in every 78 Americans. CDC researchers have used HIV diagnosis, mortality, and census population data to determine current lifetime and age-conditional risk across the country by various subgroups and by state. Data Breakdown: A study team from the CDC estimated the lifetime risk of being diagnosed with HIV in the United States to now be 1.01%, or one in every 99 Americans. The risk of acquiring the virus ranged drastically among various subgroups: Men (one in 62) vs women (one in 221). African American men (one in 20) vs women (one in 48). Hispanic and Latino men (one in 48) vs women (one in 227). Caucasian men (one in 132) vs women (one in 880). African American men who have sex with men (MSM; one in two) vs Hispanic MSM (one in four) vs Caucasian MSM (one in 11). People living in Georgia (one in 51) vs North Dakota (one in 670). Take Home Pearl: The estimated lifetime risk of being diagnosed with HIV in the U.S. appears to have decreased in recent years, but racial and geographic disparities persist.   Injection Drug-Related HIV in Rural Regions   The Particulars: In January 2015, the Indiana State Department of Health investigated 11 apparent injection drug-related HIV infections in the...

Conference Highlights: CROI 2011

This feature highlights some of the studies that emerged from the 2011 CROI annual conference, including the protective effects of circumcision against HIV, treatment of HIV-tuberculosis coinfection, and research on HIV-resistant T cells. » Circumcision Provides Protection Against HIV » Prompt Treatment Needed for HIV-TB Coinfection » Nurse Care Effective in HIV Management » Optimism on HIV-Resistant T Cells  Circumcision Provides Protection Against HIV The Particulars: Previous research has suggested that circumcising men may help protect them in the future from contracting the HIV virus. Findings from recent original randomized trials have suggested that circumcision reduces the risk of catching HIV by about 50%. Clinicians have expressed some concern about the effect of male circumcision on changing sexual behaviors and the adoption of more risk practices. A study was conducted to see how circumcision affects both the risk of HIV and human behavior. Data Breakdown:Researchers found that HIV incidence was 73% lower among trial participants who were circumcised and those who got circumcised later when compared with those in a control arm who did not accept circumcision. Researchers offered men in the control arm the chance to be circumcised, and 80.4% accepted. Among control participants who were circumcised, the risk of HIV was reduced 67%, compared with the men who declined the procedure. In post-trial surveillance, the study group observed no change in the number of non-marital sex partners between intervention and control patients. There was also no significant difference in condom use between the 1,321 men who got circumcised and the 372 who did not. Take Home Pearls: The benefit of male circumcision for HIV prevention appears to persist, even...

Conference Highlights: CROI 2010

The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, or CROI, held its 2010 annual conference from February 16 to 19 in San Francisco. The features below highlight some of the news emerging from the meeting. For more information on these items and other research that was presented, go to http://retroconference.org/2010. Hormonal Contraception in Women With HIV The Particulars: There has been a significant unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women. Reports from the World Health Organization currently conclude that most forms of contraception are safe for HIV-positive women. Use of hormonal contraception has doubled over the past decade, but had still reached only 19.2% in 2005-2006. Data Breakdown: A population-based study of 625 women in Uganda who had more than 10 years of follow-up and yearly information on contraceptive use was conducted. Hormonal contraception was associated with a median of 4.45 years longer until AIDS or death compared with no contraception. However, hormonal contraception appeared to offer no more benefit with regard to risk of AIDS and death than other forms of contraception. Take Home Pearls: Hormonal contraception appears to carry no harm for women with HIV. Users of the pill and other forms of hormonal contraception appear to be protected against progression to AIDS or death. Increasing the Identification of HIV The Particulars: Identifying patients with HIV earlier, when they have higher CD4 counts, is important because these individuals are more likely to respond to therapy. Washington, DC has one of the highest rates of HIV in the United States, with an estimated prevalence of 3%. Data Breakdown: Washington, DC’s Department of Health launched an initiative in 2006 with...
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