Addressing the Antibiotic Resistance Crisis

Antibiotic-resistant infections cost the healthcare system more than $20 billion annually and result in more than 8 million additional days in the hospital. Overcoming the crisis will require comprehensive, multipronged strategies that are aimed at reducing the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Few New Antibiotics on the Horizon Many pharmaceutical companies have had less interest in developing new antibiotics because they aren’t as profitable as drugs used to treat chronic conditions or lifestyle issues. Additional barriers include uncertainties about requirements for FDA approval and the scientific and technical challenges that are inherent in identifying new classes of antibiotics. Once a successful new antibiotic clears hurdles and enters the market, the profitability of the drug is limited by effective antimicrobial stewardship programs and by the ability of microbes to rapidly adapt to antibiotics. Since 2008, only two new antibiotics have been approved by the FDA. “As much as 50% of antibiotic use in humans is either unnecessary or inappropriate.” The Infectious Diseases Society of America set forth the 10 x ‘20 Initiative to spur the development of 10 new antibiotics by 2020, a goal that includes new incentives for drug research and development, among other strategies. Unfortunately, little progress has been made in achieving this goal. Accordingly, legislators need to support new incentives for industry, and regulators need to consider the important clinical and public health benefits that antibiotics provide as they develop new guidelines and update existing guidance for the design of clinical trials. Education on Antibiotic Use is Critical As much as 50% of antibiotic use in humans is either unnecessary or inappropriate. Efforts to increase education...