Advertisement
Guidelines Update: Preventive Treatments for Migraine

Guidelines Update: Preventive Treatments for Migraine

About 38% of people who suffer from migraine could benefit from preventive treatments, but less than one-third currently uses them. Some analyses have shown that migraine attacks can be reduced by more than half with preventive therapies. In 2000, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) published guidelines for migraine prevention. In the April 24, 2012 issue of Neurology, the AAN and the American Headache Society issued updated guidelines to account for new evidence. One set of guidelines was developed specifically for prescription products, while another was created for OTC drugs and complementary therapies. In each guideline, the safety and efficacy of pharmacologic therapies for migraine prevention was addressed. The reviews addressed the strength of evidence backing a given drug’s superiority relative to placebo. Prescription Drugs for Migraine Among prescription medications, several β-blockers (metoprolol, propranolol, and timolol) and seizure drugs (divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate) established “proven efficacy” for migraine prevention based on clinical research. One selective serotonin receptor agonist (frovatriptan) was also proven effective. It’s recommended that clinicians consider offering these medications to migraineurs to reduce the frequency and severity of attacks.             Topiramate was elevated to a Level A recommendation (indicating “proven efficacy”) on the strength of five randomized trials. Other drugs that had previously been used for migraine prevention were downgraded from higher recommendations in 2000 because the current evidence failed to clearly support their efficacy. OTCs & Complimentary Therapies for Migraine Petasites, also known as butterbur, were shown to be effective in preventing migraine. Several NSAIDs were found to be “probably effective,” including fenoprofen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen and naproxen sodium,...

Updating Osteoarthritis Treatment Recommendations

To help clinicians manage the increasing number of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) revised its guidelines for using non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies in OA of the hand, hip, and knee. Published in an issue of Arthritis Care & Research, the guidelines update recommendations from 2000. According to the ACR, management of OA should begin with treatments that are beneficial and have the lowest possible risk. Prior to recommending prescription medication and surgery, low-risk modalities (eg, weight loss and exercise) should be attempted. Treatments with greater risk may be used when simpler treatments fail. Hand Osteoarthritis Potential treatment modalities for hand OA include an assessment of activities of daily living, use of assistive devices, joint protection techniques, thermal agents, and trapeziometacarpal joint splinting. Oral and topical NSAIDs, topical capsaicin, and tramadol are other treatment modalities for hand OA, but opioids and intra-articular therapies are not recommended. Topical NSAIDs are preferred to oral administration in patients aged 75 and older, thus putting an emphasis on using these agents conservatively when possible. “New therapies for OA and additional information on the safety and acceptability of existing therapies have emerged.” Knee Osteoarthritis For knee OA, aerobic or resistance land-based exercise, aquatic exercise, and weight loss are strongly recommended in the guideline update. Conditionally recommended modalities include self-management programs like manual therapy with supervised exercise, tai chi, and wedged insoles. For moderate to severe pain in patients who do not wish to undergo joint replacement, acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) are recommended. Conditionally recommended pharmacologic modalities include acetaminophen, oral and topical NSAIDs, tramadol, and intra-articular corticosteroid injections....

Long-Term Use of Analgesic After Surgery

An investigation of older, opioid-naïve patients who were given an opioid within 1 week of a short-stay surgery has found that this population appears to be frequently prescribed analgesics immediately after ambulatory surgery, a practice that appeared to be associated with long-term use. Patients who received an opioid prescription within 1 week were 44% more likely to become long-term opioid users within 1 year when compared with those not prescribed an opioid. Those who received an NSAID prescription within 1 week were nearly four times more likely to become long-term NSAID users when compared with those not prescribed these drugs. Abstract: Archives of Internal Medicine, March 12,...
[ HIDE/SHOW ]