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CME: Treatment-Resistant Hypertension: Assessing Predictors & Outcomes

CME: Treatment-Resistant Hypertension: Assessing Predictors & Outcomes

“The topic of treatment-resistant HTN has gained attention in recent years,” says Rhonda M. Cooper-DeHoff, PharmD, MS, FAHA, FACC. “The condition increases long-term risk for poor outcomes, regardless of whether or not HTN is controlled or uncontrolled. Unfortunately, we’re lacking important data on the long-term effects of treatment-resistant HTN.” Coronary artery disease (CAD) is among the leading causes of mortality, and treatment-resistant HTN is more common in patients with CAD than without CAD. Little is known, however, about the impact that treatment-resistant HTN has on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CAD. Such data may inform clinicians on strategies to aggressively manage risk factors. Identifying Predictors & Impact In the Journal of Hypertension, Dr. Cooper-DeHoff and colleagues published a study that described the prevalence, predictors, and impact on adverse cardiovascular outcomes of resistant HTN among patients with CAD and HTN. More than 17,000 study participants were divided into three groups according to achieved BP: 1) controlled (BP<140/90 mm Hg on three or fewer drugs); 2) uncontrolled (BP≥140/90 mm Hg on two or fewer drugs); or 3) resistant (BP≥140/90 mm Hg on three drugs or any patient on at least four drugs). “We found that resistant HTN occurred in 38% of patients with CAD and HTN,” says Dr. Cooper-DeHoff. “Those with resistant HTN were at increased risk for having poorer outcomes.” Several characteristics were associated with an increased risk of resistant HTN, including a history of heart failure, diabetes, and renal insufficiency, among others (Figure 1). Overall, 13 independent predictors of resistant HTN were identified. Many of these characteristics can be obtained noninvasively and help clinicians recognize these patients in the clinic. “The prevalence...
Treatment-Resistant Hypertension: Assessing Predictors & Outcomes

Treatment-Resistant Hypertension: Assessing Predictors & Outcomes

Treatment-resistant hypertension (HTN) has been defined in various ways in clinical research. Some definitions go so far as to say which medications should be used before classifying patients as having resistant HTN. Regardless of the definition, the overriding theme of treatment-resistant HTN is that it occurs when several anti-hypertensive drugs are needed to control blood pressure (BP). Studies suggest that treatment-resistant HTN is present in 20% to 30% of patients with HTN. Its prevalence has more than doubled over the past 25 years, and research has linked it to an increased risk of cardiovascular events when compared with patients without treatment-resistant HTN. “The topic of treatment-resistant HTN has gained attention in recent years,” says Rhonda M. Cooper-DeHoff, PharmD, MS, FAHA, FACC. “The condition increases long-term risk for poor outcomes, regardless of whether or not HTN is controlled or uncontrolled. Unfortunately, we’re lacking important data on the long-term effects of treatment-resistant HTN.” Coronary artery disease (CAD) is among the leading causes of mortality, and treatment-resistant HTN is more common in patients with CAD than without CAD. Little is known, however, about the impact that treatment-resistant HTN has on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CAD. Such data may inform clinicians on strategies to aggressively manage risk factors. Identifying Predictors & Impact In the Journal of Hypertension, Dr. Cooper-DeHoff and colleagues published a study that described the prevalence, predictors, and impact on adverse cardiovascular outcomes of resistant HTN among patients with CAD and HTN. More than 17,000 study participants were divided into three groups according to achieved BP: 1) controlled (BP<140/90 mm Hg on three or fewer drugs); 2) uncontrolled (BP≥140/90 mm Hg on...
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