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The genus Anogeissus: A review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

The genus Anogeissus: A review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology.
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Singh D, Baghel US, Gautam A, Baghel DS, Yadav D, Malik J, Yadav R,


Singh D, Baghel US, Gautam A, Baghel DS, Yadav D, Malik J, Yadav R, (click to view)

Singh D, Baghel US, Gautam A, Baghel DS, Yadav D, Malik J, Yadav R,

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Journal of ethnopharmacology 2016 8 23() pii 10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.025

Abstract
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE
The genus Anogeissus (axlewood tree, ghatti tree, button tree and chewing stick tree) belongs to Combretaceae, includes eight species that are distributed in Asia and Africa. Plants are used as an ethnomedicine in Asia and Africa to treat various ailments like diabetes, fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, tuberculosis, wound healing, skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis), snake and scorpion venom. Based on the traditional knowledge, different phytochemical and pharmacological activities have been at the focus of research. The aim of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicity of Anogeissus species in order to identify their therapeutic potential and directs future research opportunities.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The relevant data was searched by using the keyword "Anogeissus" in "Scopus", "Google Scholar", "Web of Science", "PubMed", and "ScienceDirect" databases. Plant taxonomy was validated by the databases "The Plant List" and A.J. Scott, 1978.

RESULTS
This review discusses the current knowledge of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and in vitro as well as in vivo pharmacological evaluations carried out on the extracts and isolated main active constituents of Anogeissus genus. Among eight species, most of the phytochemical and pharmacological studies were performed on four species. About 55 secondary metabolites are isolated from the genus. Stem bark, leaf, seed, fruit, root of the plants are used for the treatment of several health disorders such as diabetes, fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, tuberculosis, wound healing, skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis), snake and scorpion venom. Gum ghatti obtained from Anogeissus latifolia is used after delivery as tonic and in spermatorrhoea. Many phytochemical investigations on this genus confirmed that it is rich in phenolic compounds. Modern pharmacology research has confirmed that the crude extracts or the isolated active compounds of the genus Anogeissus possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, wound healing, antiulcer, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetics, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antiparasitic and neuroprotective effects.

CONCLUSIONS
This review confirms that some Anogeissus species have emerged as a good source of the traditional medicine for wound healing, inflammation, skin diseases, microbial infection and diabetes. Many traditional uses of Anogeissus species have now been validated by modern pharmacology research. Intensive investigations of all the species of Anogeissus regarding phytochemical and pharmacological properties, especially their mechanism of action, safety and efficacy could be the future research interests before starting clinical trials.

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