The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 2016 06 0695(2) 426-30 doi 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0789
Talaromyces marneffei (formerly known as Penicillium marneffei) is a dimorphic fungus endemic in south and southeast Asia. It is not only commonly found in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but also among HIV-negative immunocompromised patients. The infection caused by this pathogen can disseminate hematogenously to other locations. Herein, we report for the first time two cases complicated with a rare disease or involving a rare site: in the first case, T. marneffei infection was complicated by Langerhans cell histiocytosis, whereas the second case showed clear etiological evidence of pleural nodules and pleural effusion caused by T. marneffei and diagnosed by thoracoscopic pleural biopsy.