Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI techniques have been widely used in the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection related diseases.
To explore whether magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can track water molecular diffusion changes in the brain of asymptomatic HIV-positive adolescents.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Multi-b value DWI was performed in 23 adolescents, including 15 HIV-positive participants and eight HIV-negative healthy participants. Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCs) values, fast apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCf) values, distribution diffusion coefficient (DDC) values, and heterogeneity index (α) values were calculated within regions of interest (ROIs) in the frontal lobes, basal ganglia, and temporal lobe. Non-parametric tests were then performed.
In the bilateral frontal lobes, the mean α values in HIV-positive participants were significantly increased compared with those in healthy participants (right side P = 0.001; left side P = 0.000). In the left frontal lobe, the mean DDC value in HIV-positive participants was significantly increased compared with that in healthy participants (P = 0.008). In the bilateral frontal lobes, the mean ADCf values in HIV-positive participants were significantly lower than those in healthy participants (right side P = 0.011; left side P = 0.008). In the left basal ganglia, the mean α values in HIV-positive participants were significantly lower than that in healthy participants (P = 0.013).
Multi-b value DWI could reflect the early characteristics of water molecule diffusion in HIV infections.