We evaluated associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) levels in a cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected men at risk for infection in the United States. Stored samples collected between 1999 and 2008 were tested for vitamin D metabolites between 2014 and 2015. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum concentration of 25[OH]D < 20ng/mL. Multivariate models were used to assess associations of various demographic and clinical factors with vitamin D status. Interactions between HIV serostatus and factors were also assessed. HIV-infected men on effective antiretroviral therapy (N=640) and HIV-uninfected men (N=99) had comparable levels of 25[OH]D and 1,25[OH]2D, and prevalences of vitamin D deficiency were 41% in HIV-infected and 44% in HIV-uninfected men, respectively. Self-reported black or other non-white race, obesity and normal kidney function were significant predictors of vitamin D deficiency regardless of HIV serostatus. Lower CD4+ T-cell count was associated with vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected men, while current ritonavir use was protective. Self-reported black race was the only factor significantly associated with higher levels of 1,25[OH]2D (vs whites; β=4.85pg/mL, p=0.003). Levels of 1,25[OH]2D and 25[OH]D were positively correlated in HIV-infected men (β=0.32 pg/mL, P<0.001), but not in uninfected men (β=-0.09 pg/mL, P=0.623; P<0.05 for interaction). Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent regardless of HIV serostatus in this cohort, suggesting that HIV infection did not confer additional risk of deficiency in this cohort of well-treated HIV-infected men. However, HIV infection and race may have implications for vitamin D metabolism and 1,25[OH]2D levels.
Vitamin D Deficiency and Metabolism in HIV-infected and -uninfected Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS).