Scientific reports 2017 09 297(1) 12438 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-12676-x
Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) a gammaherpesvirus establishes perennial latency in the host with periodic reactivation. Occasionally change in the physiological condition like hypoxia, host cell differentiation can trigger the lytic switch and reactivation of the virus. The biologically active form of 1, 25(OH)2 D3 plays a critical role in the regulation of various physiological processes (e.g. regulation of mineral homeostasis and control of bone metabolism). Apart from its role in host physiology, 1, 25(OH)2 D3 has been implicated as a potential agent for the prevention and/or treatment of many a tumors. Here we show that 1, 25(OH)2 D3 induces both death of Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus infected PEL cells and KSHV replication. 1, 25(OH)2 D3 mediated inhibition of proliferation was associated with apoptosis of the PEL cells, and virus reactivation. In addition, p38 signalling is required for KSHV reactivation. Furthermore, treatment of PEL cells with p38 inhibitor abrogated the expression of ORF57, thus blocking lytic switch. Furthermore, silencing of VDR resulted in reduced ORF57 expression compared to the control cells, signifying the potential role of 1, 25(OH)2 D3 in KSHV reactivation. Thus, our studies have revealed a novel role of 1, 25(OH)2 D3 in the regulation of KSHV reactivation and PEL cell death.