Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in processes associated with neuroplasticity and neuroprotection. Evidence suggests that decreased BDNF levels in the central nervous system (CNS) represent a mechanism underlying the development of mood disorders. We hypothesize that both congenital and traumatic brain injury (mTBI)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown are responsible for brain BDNF depletion that contributes to the development of depressive-like symptoms. We employed a mouse model of innate differences in BBB integrity with high (HA) and low (LA) permeability. Depressive-like behaviours were determined under chronic mild stress (CMS) conditions or following mTBI using the tail suspension test (TST). Microvascular leakage of the BBB was evaluated using the Evans Blue Dye (EBD) extravasation method. BDNF concentrations in the brain and plasma were measured using the ELISA. Control HA mice with congenitally high BBB permeability showed exacerbated depressive-like behaviours compared with LA mice. In LA mice, with normal BBB function, mTBI, but not CMS, facilitated depressive-like behaviours, which correlated with enhanced BDNF efflux from the brain. In addition, mTBI triggered upregulation of the Bdnf gene in LA mice to compensate for BDNF loss. No alterations in BDNF levels were observed in mTBI and CMS-exposed HA mice. Moreover, CMS did not induce BBB damage or affect depressive-like behaviours in HA mice despite downregulating Bdnf gene expression. To conclude, BDNF efflux through the mTBI-disrupted BBB is strongly linked to the development of depressive-like behaviours, while the depressive phenotype in mice with congenital BBB dysfunction is independent of BDNF leakage.