Ayurveda remains as the classical and comprehensive part of ancient Indian system of medicine for wellbeing promotive, disease preventive, and revival approach for human body. Triphala Rasayana is mentioned in Ayurveda comprising fruits of three plant species viz. Phyllanthus emblica L. (P. emblica), Terminalia chebula Retz (T. chebula), and Terminalia bellirica Roxb (T.bellirica). Triphala Rasayana has been utilized in various traditional systems of medicine, viz., Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. Traditionally Rasayana based drugs are utilized in different kinds of diseases without pathophysiological associations as indicated by current medication. Various medicinal attributes of Triphala Rasayana include antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and anticataract and is also considered as a pillar for gastrointestinal treatment specifically in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Due to Rasayan’s easy mode of administration, availability, and affordability, there is an increase of its global acceptance.
This review article summarizes the scientific validation, traditional uses, bioactive compounds, and ethnopharmacological properties of Triphala Rasayana. In addition, it also documents recent data on in vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies and clinical effects of Triphala rasayana.
A literature review was carried out using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, web of science, Ayush Research Portal, and Clinical Trials Registry-India. In addition to an electronic search, traditional ayurvedic texts, and books were used as source of information.
Traditionally, “Triphala Rasayana” is classified as a tridoshic rasayana and one of the most well-studied ayurvedic Rasayana. It showed various pharmacological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective and antidiabetic. Besides this, Rasayana has reported ethnopharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, anticataract, wound healing, and radioprotection. It has shown a good impact on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) system with the reported pharmacological activities in gastrointestinal disorders such as constipation, gastric ulcer, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Phytochemical studies of Triphala Rasayana revealed the presence of chemical constituents like gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulic acid, chebulinic acid, methyl gallate, emblicanin A, and emblicanin B. Additionally, clinical studies found Triphala Rasayana to be effective against antidiabetic, constipation and obesity.
The present review revealed that Triphala Rasayana has a potential for treating a diverse range of diseases, especially GIT disorders. Considering the beneficial properties of Triphala Rasayana, and proven non-toxic nature of Triphala Rasayana, it could be a source of rejuvenation in contemporary healthcare. Moreover, its clinical data was found effective in providing precious signals to correlate ayurvedic biology and modern medicine.