To assess the patterns of recurrence of vulva cancer on F-FDG PET/CT and to compare the F-FDG PET metabolic metrics in patients with and without Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
 Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV), mean standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumour volume (MTV and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were obtained on Flourine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) images of women referred with suspected or confirmed vulva cancer recurrence. We compared HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients regarding pattern disease recurrence, age at diagnosis, and the PET-derived metabolic indices.
 We analyzed 33 patients with a mean age 50.76 ± 15.78 including 21 HIV-infected women. The majority of patients (94 %) had squamous cell carcinoma and 84.85 % were Blacks. Of the HIV-infected individuals, the median CD4 count was 526.0 cells/mm3 (IQR: 379.0-729.0). HIV infected patients were younger than the HIV uninfected at the time of diagnosis: 40.50 ± 8.87 vs 66.54 ± 9.71 respectively, p < 0.001. We found a local (vulvar) recurrence rate of 75.8 %. Nodal pelvic recurrences were higher in the HIV-infected patients than in the HIV uninfected patients (70 % vs 30 %, p = 0.027). Three patients had distant metastasis and all three were HIV-infected. There was a higher whole-body MTV and TLG among HIV-infected women compared with HIV-uninfected women, 103.39 vs 17.58 and 852.64 vs 101.79, respectively (p < 0.05 for both).
 HIV-infected women are diagnosed with vulva cancer at a younger age. HIV-infected patients had a higher rate of pelvic lymph node recurrence. There is a higher tumor burden at vulva cancer recurrence among women with HIV infection.

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.